Caroline Shenaz Hossein

Department of Social Science

Assistant Professor

Office: Ross Building, S763
Phone: (416)736-2100 Ext: 33612
Emailchossein@yorku.ca
Primary websiteYork U LAPS
Secondary websiteTwitter

Dr. Hossein's research interest is in diverse community economies with specific attention to the intersection of identities such as race, class and gender. Her work on social exclusion is grounded in Black liberation and feminist theorizing, and the lived experience among the African diaspora. Dr. Hossein's great-great-grandmother and the women after that have all been members of ROSCAs (known locally as susus), an important African tradition.

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Dr. Caroline Shenaz Hossein is an Assistant Professor (tenure-track) in the Social Science Department at York University. In 2017-2019 she is a Visiting Professor at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Dr. Hossein examines the community economies of the African diaspora in her book, "Politicized Microfinance: Money, power and violence in the Black Americas" published with the University of Toronto Press. See more at: http://www.utppublishing.com/Politicized-Microfinance-Money-Power-and-Violence-in-the-Black-Americas.html Dr. Hossein holds a PhD in Political Science (political economy) and Gender and Women Studies from the University of Toronto, an MPA from Cornell University, an LL.B from the University of Kent at Canterbury (UK) and BA from Saint Mary's University (Halifax). Previously, she was a U.S Fulbright Fellow at the Caribbean Policy and Research Institute and at the University of West Indies-Mona, Jamaica. Her honors include the Helen Potter Prize for best journal article in the Review of Social Economy and US Fulbright to Jamaica in 2009. In 2016, Dr. Hossein was a Visiting Fellow at the Polanyi Institute for Political Economy at Concordia University, Montreal. She is on the executive board committee of the Center for Feminist Research and the Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on Africa and its Diaspora at York University. In addition to her academic work, Dr. Hossein has more than a decade of full-time professional experience as a practitioner in economic development in at least 20 countries, including managing a community bank in Niger, West Africa. (last updated 6 Feb, 2017)

Area of Specialization

Social economics

Degrees

PhD, University of Toronto
MPA, Cornell University
LLB, University of Kent at Canterbury (UK)
BA, Saint Mary's University (Halifax, NS)

Appointments

Faculty of Graduate Studies

Professional Leadership

Trustee and board member, Association of Social Economics, Executive board committee, Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on Africa and its Diaspora, York University, Executive board committee, Centre for Feminist Research (CFR), York University, Chair, Grades Reappraisal Committee, Dept. of Social Science, York University

Community Contributions

Toronto Black Farmers and Growers Collective, Firgrove Learning Innovation and Community Centre, Community Engagement Centre at Jane and Finch

Research Interests

Poverty , Gender Issues , Africa and the African Diaspora, Garveyism, Social economy and Intersectionality, Community economic development, Non-profits, Microfinance, Self-help groups, ROSCAS and Social enterprises

Current Research Projects

Politicized Microfinance in the Black Americas

Description: 
This project highlights how violence and power are intricately entangled with microfinance and advances new ideas on ways to overcome these impediments to poverty alleviation programs. Funded by York University’s LA&PS Minor Grant and SSHRC Small Grants Program 2012-2014, York University for field work in Trinidad and Grenada June and July 2013.

Project Type: Funded
Role: Principle investigator


Start Date:  Month: May  Year: 2008
End Date:  Month: Jul  Year: 2016

Collaborator Institution: The NGO Network (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad), CAPRI and UWI (Jamaica), INURED Haiti, IDS and University of Guyana

The Black Social Economy: The Caribbean Banker Ladies contesting commercial banks

Description: 
Black women in the slums are usually excluded from financial programs–even microfinance ones. In my empirical study which currently examines of 491 people in Jamaica, Guyana and Haiti as it relates to informal banking systems will expand to include a comparative study of marginlized Canadians engaging in ROSCAs. These banks known as ROSCAs not only provide coping tools for livelihood survival, but banker ladies insert a program of social connectedness and political action when they organize these local resources. Banker ladies have a clear social justice agenda: to validate the business activities of marginalized people. Informal banks counter fundamnetalist markets because it is focused on the collective, where Black women in the Americas are creating alternative financial programs that are squarely part of the social economy.

Project Type: Funded
Role: Principle investigator


Start Date:  Month: Dec  Year: 2012
End Date:  Month: Dec  Year: 2017

Collaborator Institution: UWI Mona, Jamaica; Quisqueya ONG, Haiti, Center for IDS, Guyana

Gender-based violence in markets

Summary: 
To examine the violence perpetuated against micro/small business women as they travel to conduct business and trade. I draw on empirical data from Haiti as well as reflections from earlier work in the Great Lakes region of Africa.

Description: 
In December 2013, I carried out gender equality research in agricultural value chains to understand the GBV and constraints experienced by female agribusiness owners in Cap Haitian, northern Haiti. In the pipeline are two articles, “Haiti’s “middle-men” are poor women: The madam saras” and “Gender-based violence and madam saras in the market arena.” An article, “Haiti’s Caisses Populaires: Home-grown solutions to bring economic democracy” has been published by the International Journal of Social Economy in January 2014. As of 2008, I am a researcher affiliated with the Institut Interuniversite de Recherche et du Developpement (INURED) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and this new project builds on the former work examining the caisses populaires system.

Project Type: Funded
Role: Principle investigator


Start Date:  Month: May  Year: 2011
End Date:  Month: Dec  Year: 2014

Collaborator Institution: Making Cents, INGO; Catholic University of Bukavu (DR Congo)

Black Social Economy in the Americas: Exploring Diverse Community-Based Alternative Markets

Summary: 
The start of the Black social economy hub


Project Type: Self-Funded

Start Date:  Month: Sep  Year: 2015
End Date:  Month: Sep  Year: 2018

Funders: 
start up funds

Role: Principle investigator


Start Date:  Month: Apr  Year: 2013
End Date:  Month: Sep  Year: 2015

Bacchanal Microfinance: Government-owned microfinance in Trinidad and Tobago

Description: 
Microfinance is viewed as banking upside down to bring in people excluded from formal financial systems. This ability of microfinance to raise the morale of the masses has also piqued the interest of political elites in the Caribbean. I argue that the Trinidadian microfinance sector is bacchanal (or in chaos) because the dominant government-owned micro bank’s rhetoric is to assist poor entrepreneurs; however, this does not seem to be the case. The state dominance in microfinance in Trinidad does not take the activities of small business people, who are mostly of African descent, from the shanties of east Port of Spain seriously. In fact, these economic resources are misused by political elites to satisfy party objectives over microfinance’s social and economic empowerment goals.

Project Type: Funded
Role: Principle investigator


Start Date:  Month: Jun  Year: 2012
End Date:  Month: Nov  Year: 2015

Funders: 
SSHRC Small Grants (Internal)
LAPS Minor Grant

ROSCAs among Black Canadians in Toronto and Montreal

Description: 
ROSCAs like other actors in the social economy strive to create useful forms of social capital where people are a part of the process to decide how things occur. Clifford Geertz (1962), argue that with more modernity that these informal banks are underdeveloped forms of cooperatives or as a “middle-rung institution” that will disappear once formal banks become more accessible. However, Ardener and Burman (1996) find that Geertz’s theory that informal banks inevitably become redundant to be untrue because they find that even in saturated banking markets, informal banks are prevalent. I will build on Ardener and Burman's ideas that it is the informality of these banks that make ROSCAs distinctive. That these ROSCAs do not have to conform to a certain norm also has its appeal. And, that as immigrants move to new countries, especially in large cities in the developed world, people are finding there is a need to continue ROSCAs. I examine whether ROSCAs are more than simply economic programs and they reach people’s needs for cultural and social interaction or whether they are ways of coping when excluded within their new society.

Project Type: Self-Funded

Start Date:  Month: Mar  Year: 2016
End Date:  Month: Mar  Year: 2019


Start Date:  Month: Apr  Year: 2016
End Date:  Month: Aug  Year: 2019

Collaborator: 

All Publications

Monographs

Politicized Microfinance: Money, power and violence in the Black Americas. The University of Toronto Press. July 2016. See: http://www.utppublishing.com/Politicized-Microfinance-Money-Power-and-Violence-in-the-Black-Americas.html

The Black Social Economy in the Americas: Exploring Diverse Community-Based Alternative Markets. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. (Edited book, in preparation)

Business and Society: A Critical Introduction. London: Zed Books. 2017. Co-edited with K. Birch et al.

Book Chapters

Collective banks build up civil society: Two cases in Jamaica and Guyana. Chapter in Yovanovich, Gordana and Rice, Roberta (under contract) Re-Imagining Communities. London: Routledge. 2016.

Business and Social Exclusion chapter in Birch, K; et al.Business and Society: A Critical Introduction. London: Zed Books, 2017.

Spread of Capitalism. chapter in Birch, K; et al.Business and Society: A Critical Introduction. London: Zed Books. 2017. Co-written with Kean Birch.

Journal Articles

Going local in downtown Kingston, Jamaica: Doing qualitative research in a volatile urban environment. Qualitative Research Journal. Volume 16:4 (November): 345-361.

Money pools in the Americas: The African diaspora’s legacy in the social economy. Accepted and forthcoming in the Forum of Social Economics. Volume XLV: 4 (November): 309-328.

’Big Man’ politics in the social economy: A case study of microfinance in Kingston, Jamaica. Review of Social Economy. Volume 74:2 (April 2016): 148-171. ** Winner of the Helen Potter Award for best journal article from the Association of Social Economics, conferred at Allied Social Science Conference and American Economics Association, Chicago, 7 January 2017.

Black women in the marketplace: The everyday gendered risks encountered by Haiti’s madan saras (women traders). Work Organisation, Labour and Globalisation. Special issue Intersectionality, Work and Globalization. Nov 2015.

Black women as cooperators: Rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs) in the Caribbean and Canada. Journal of Cooperative Studies. Winter 2015.

Government-owned micro-banking and financial exclusion: A case study of small business people in east Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Canadian Journal for Latin American and Caribbean Studies.(Nov 2015). Volume 40(3): 393-409.

The Exclusion of Afro-Guyanese Hucksters in Micro-banking. The European Review of Latin America and Caribbean Studies. Volume 96: 75-98, April 2014.

The Politics of Resistance: Informal Banks in the Caribbean. The Review of Black Political Economy. Volume 41: 1, 85-100. March 2014.

Haiti's Caisses Populaires: Home-grown Solutions to bring Economic Democracy. International Journal of Social Economics. Volume 41: 1, 42-59, January 2014.

The Black Social Economy: Perseverance of Banker Ladies in the Slums. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics. Volume 83:4, 423-442. 4 December 2013.

Using a Black Feminist framework: A Study comparing bias against female entrepreneurs in Caribbean micro-banking.Intersectionalities: A Global Journal of Social Work Analysis, Research, Polity, and Practice. 20 September 2013: 50-71.

An Egyptian Case Study: Financial Services for Youth.(co-authored Redfern and Carothers), International Journal of Emerging Markets. Volume 1, Issue 4: 329–340. October 2006.

Thinking Outside the Islamic Box: Linking Context and Credit in Muslim West Africa. Critical Half Journal. October 2004.

Conference Papers

"Post-capitalist politics and the African diaspora: Strong credit union cultures in Haiti and Grenada." University of West Indies School of Business & Management, Mona Campus. 10 November 2016.

“Garveyism in the social economies of the African diaspora in the West Indies and Canada.” A symposium on Global Garvey, Richmond, VA. April 21-23.

"Money Pools in the Americas: The African Diaspora's Legacy in the Social Economy." National Conference of Black Political Scientists. Jackson, MS, US, 16 to 20 March 2016.

"Persons of African descent create inclusive financial systems.” International Conference of Public Policy. Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan Italy. July 1-4, 2015. Invited to a panel on multi-scalarity and public policy.

“A counter movement: African self-help groups in the Americas.” World Congress of the Association for Social Economics. Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario. June 22-24, 2015.

Haiti's home-grown caisses populaires: Locally inspired solutions to bring about economic democracy. The 45th Annual conference for the National Conference of Black Political Scientists. Analyzing the Black political community, people, policy, process, and politics in an era of globalization. 10 to 16 March 2014.

“The Black Social Economy: Counter-acts to Modern Banking.” Enduring the Legacy of Karl Polanyi. Concordia University, The Polanyi Institute, Montreal, November 5-8, 2014.

“The Politics of Resistance: Informal banks in the Caribbean.” Challenges of Global Governance Organization. World Congress of International Political Science Association (IPSA). Montreal, Quebec, July 19-24, 2014.

Caribbean Spaces and Institutions: Contesting Paradigms of Development in the 21st Century. “Gender in Caribbean Microfinance.” The 38th Caribbean Studies Association meeting. 2-7 June 2013.

Black Power Re-conceptualized: Black Activists, Black Intellectuals and the Politics of Disparity. “The Politics of Microfinance Compared in the Slums of Jamaica, Guyana and Haiti.” The 44th Annual Meeting of the National Conference of Black Political Scientists. Chicago, 13-17 March 2013.

Annual Congress Conference. “Politics of Microfinance in the Caribbean.” Canadian International Development Association. Waterloo University, June 2012. Nominated and short-listed for Kari Polanyi Levitt Award.

Partners in Development—Building a Better Future through Cooperation. “Politics of Microfinance in Jamaica, Guyana and Haiti.” International Development Studies, Graduate Student Conference, Saint Mary’s University, 15 to 17 March, 2012.

Annual Congress Conference. “Politics of Caribbean Microfinance: Jamaica, Guyana and Haiti Compared.” Canadian Political Science Association, May 2011. Wilfred Laurier University, Waterloo, On.

The Politics of Hard times. “Going Local: Using Qualitative Methodologies in Complex Urban Settings.” 106th Annual Meetings American Political Science Association, September 2010. Washington, DC.

Annual Congress. Connected Understanding. “Partisan Politics and Tribalism in Microfinance: The Jamaican Case” and “Topsy Turvy Microfinance: Rethinking Gender and Identity in Downtown Kingston.” Canadian Political Science Association, June 2010, Montreal.

Centering the Caribbean in the Caribbean. “How to use a Black feminist framework in Political Science research.” 34th Caribbean Studies Association, Kingston, Jamaica, June, 2009.

Annual Congress Conference. At the Crossroads of Empire. “A Critical Review of Remittances in the Global Economy: Are gifts from abroad a part of the neoliberal agenda?” CALACS, Vancouver, June 2008.

Identity Politics in the US and Abroad: Race, the Black Diaspora and Electoral Politics Conference. “How to use a Black Feminist framework in Comparative Politics,” National Conference of Black Political Scientists, Chicago IL, March 2008. Received Graduate Award.

Black Feminist Thought Conference. Paper delivered on “Black Feminism and Development,” University of Toronto, OISE, December 2007. Co-chair and conference organizer.

Book Reviews

Edited by Roelvink, Gerda, Kevin St. Martin and J.K. Gibson-Graham. 2015. Making Other Worlds Possible: Performing Diverse Economies. (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press) . Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography. 7 pages, 2016. See more at: https://radicalantipode.files.wordpress.com/2016/04/book-review_hossein-on-roelvink-et-al.pdf

Edited by Richard Sandbrook and Ali Burak Güven. 2014. Civilizing Globalization, Revised and Expanded Edition: A Survival Guide. (New York: SUNY Press) . Canadian Journal of Political Science. 2016.

Gordon Nembhard, Jessica. 2014. Collective Courage: African American: A History of African American Cooperative Economic Thought and Practice (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania University Press). 10 pages. A slight adaptation. Reprinted with permission on the Black Canadian Studies. See more at: http://www.blackcanadianstudies.com/book_reviews/

Sinclair, Hugh. 2012. Confessions of a Microfinance Heretic (Oakland, California: Berrett-Koehler). Enterprise Development and Microfinance (Sept 2014) Vol. 25, No. 3: 261-264.

Research Reports

“Understanding gender-specific constraints for Haiti’s women micro-entrepreneurs in the northern corridor.” Making Cents International (NGO). 27 December 2013.

"Facilitating Cross-Border Trade between the DRC and Neighbors in the Great Lakes Region of Africa: Improving Conditions for Poor Traders." The World Bank Group. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Africa Region Report No.62992-AFR. June 2011.

"Risky Business? Poor Women Food Traders in the Borderlands of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi." World Bank report. October 2010.

"Perspectives Inna di Yard: Improving Access to Microfinance." Inter-American Development Bank report. January 2010.

"Understanding the Impact of Employment, Entrepreneurship and Training Programs on Youth in Jordan and Rwanda," microNOTE 52. USAID. Nov 2008.

Public Lectures

The Black Social Economy: “Banker Ladies” and Money Pools in the Americas, University of Pittsburgh, 15 Feb 2017.

Politicized microfinance. University of Toronto, 16 November 2016.

Politicized microfinance (a book lecture). Studies in National and International Development, Queen's University, 13 October 2016.

"The Black Social Economy: Banker Ladies and Money Pools in the Americas." Centre for Feminist Research, York University, Toronto, 22 October 2015

Conference theme: “Decolonizing Development: Opportunities & Alternatives Post-2015.” Paper titled: “Bankers to the Poor: Oppressors or Champions?” Fourth Annual International Development Conference at the University of Toronto Scarborough (UTSC), 7-8 February 2015.

“Violence and Politics in Microfinance: A study of small business people of African descent in the Americas.” Tubman Talks at Harriet Tubman Institute, York University, Toronto, 23 October 2014.

Local economic development: Is there a role for microfinance? “Is Microfinance losing its fairy dust?: Financial inclusion in the Caribbean.” International Development Research Centre (IDRC). Sponsored by Canadian Cooperative Association, Inter Pares and Canadian Coalition to end Global Poverty. 1 October 2013.

“Social justice and micro-banking.” Colloquia for Social Justice and Peace Studies program at King’s College, University of West Ontario, London, 30 Oct 2013.

“Topsy Turvy Microfinance in Downtown Kingston.” Caribbean Policy Research Institute (CAPRI), UWI/Mona Senate Lounge, Jamaica, 26 October 2009.

Creative Works

A trusted ancient African tradition of savings. Montreal Community Contact newspaper, 25 July 2016. http://montrealcommunitycontact.com/a-trusted-ancient-african-tradition-of-savings/

“Cultural Bias in Financial Development Programs: The Afro-Caribbean Experience.” Panoramas provides a web-based venue for thoughtful dialogue of Latin American and Caribbean issues. May 11, 2015. http://www.panoramas.pitt.edu/content/cultural-bias-financial-development-programs-afro-caribbean-experience#sthash.MPItWVag.dpuf

“Bank accounting: Class and race and the 'right to bank'.” Rabble.ca. March 23, 2015. http://rabble.ca/blogs/bloggers/views-expressed/2015/03/bank-accounting-class-and-race-and-right-to-bank

Black Creek Financial Action Network, Jane and Finch. TD Community Engagement Centre (CEC), Yorkgate Mall. “Gro’ wid People: Understanding the Black social economy in Canada.” 22 January 2015.

“The Harper Government Commercializes International Development.” Ottawa Citizen on-line Blogs. 7 May 2013. http://blogs.ottawacitizen.com/2013/05/07/caroline-shenaz-hossein-the-harper-government-commercializes-international-development-2/

“Losing CIDA, Canadian International Development Agency.” Straight Good News. 23 April 2013. http://sgnews.ca/2013/04/22/losing-cida-the-canadian-international-development-agency/

Forthcoming

The Black Banker Ladies of Canada: A preliminary study to examine how African-Canadians humanize banking.

Fringe Banking in Canada: The Collective Economies of Toronto’s “Banker Ladies.”

Post-capitalist politics and the African diaspora: Strong credit union cultures in Haiti and Grenada.

A Black perspective on Canada’s third sector: Case studies on Women leaders in the social economy.

Living Garveyism: African-Canadian women build local community banks

Business from a Black perspective: Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association-African Communities League (U.N.I.A-A.C.L) contribution to the field of business ethics. Co-written with Russell Benjamin.

Approach To Teaching

2016 to 2017 SOSC 1341 Introduction to the Social Economy SOSC 4046 The Social Economy Practicum ======== Past courses taught: SOSC 3041 The Social Economy and Alternative Development; SOSC 3042 Social Exclusion and Business in the Global South; SOSC 3043 Comparative Perspectives on Social Exclusion and Business; SOSC 4040 Issues in Business and Society; SOSC 4046 The Social Economy Practicum

Upcoming Courses

TermCourse NumberSectionTitleType 
Fall/Winter 2017-2018 AP/SOSC1341 9.0  Introduction to the Social Economy LECT  
Fall/Winter 2017-2018 AP/SOSC4046 6.0  Social Economy Practicum  SEMR  


Dr. Hossein's research interest is in diverse community economies with specific attention to the intersection of identities such as race, class and gender. Her work on social exclusion is grounded in Black liberation and feminist theorizing, and the lived experience among the African diaspora. Dr. Hossein's great-great-grandmother and the women after that have all been members of ROSCAs (known locally as susus), an important African tradition.


Dr. Caroline Shenaz Hossein is an Assistant Professor (tenure-track) in the Social Science Department at York University. In 2017-2019 she is a Visiting Professor at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Dr. Hossein examines the community economies of the African diaspora in her book, "Politicized Microfinance: Money, power and violence in the Black Americas" published with the University of Toronto Press. See more at: http://www.utppublishing.com/Politicized-Microfinance-Money-Power-and-Violence-in-the-Black-Americas.html Dr. Hossein holds a PhD in Political Science (political economy) and Gender and Women Studies from the University of Toronto, an MPA from Cornell University, an LL.B from the University of Kent at Canterbury (UK) and BA from Saint Mary's University (Halifax). Previously, she was a U.S Fulbright Fellow at the Caribbean Policy and Research Institute and at the University of West Indies-Mona, Jamaica. Her honors include the Helen Potter Prize for best journal article in the Review of Social Economy and US Fulbright to Jamaica in 2009. In 2016, Dr. Hossein was a Visiting Fellow at the Polanyi Institute for Political Economy at Concordia University, Montreal. She is on the executive board committee of the Center for Feminist Research and the Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on Africa and its Diaspora at York University. In addition to her academic work, Dr. Hossein has more than a decade of full-time professional experience as a practitioner in economic development in at least 20 countries, including managing a community bank in Niger, West Africa. (last updated 6 Feb, 2017)

Area of Specialization

Social economics

Degrees

PhD, University of Toronto
MPA, Cornell University
LLB, University of Kent at Canterbury (UK)
BA, Saint Mary's University (Halifax, NS)

Appointments

Faculty of Graduate Studies

Professional Leadership

Trustee and board member, Association of Social Economics, Executive board committee, Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on Africa and its Diaspora, York University, Executive board committee, Centre for Feminist Research (CFR), York University, Chair, Grades Reappraisal Committee, Dept. of Social Science, York University

Community Contributions

Toronto Black Farmers and Growers Collective, Firgrove Learning Innovation and Community Centre, Community Engagement Centre at Jane and Finch

Research Interests:

Poverty , Gender Issues , Africa and the African Diaspora, Garveyism, Social economy and Intersectionality, Community economic development, Non-profits, Microfinance, Self-help groups, ROSCAS and Social enterprises

Current Research Projects

Politicized Microfinance in the Black Americas

Description: 
This project highlights how violence and power are intricately entangled with microfinance and advances new ideas on ways to overcome these impediments to poverty alleviation programs. Funded by York University’s LA&PS Minor Grant and SSHRC Small Grants Program 2012-2014, York University for field work in Trinidad and Grenada June and July 2013.

Project Type: Funded
Role: Principle investigator


Start Date:  Month: May  Year: 2008
End Date:  Month: Jul  Year: 2016

Collaborator Institution: The NGO Network (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad), CAPRI and UWI (Jamaica), INURED Haiti, IDS and University of Guyana

The Black Social Economy: The Caribbean Banker Ladies contesting commercial banks

Description: 
Black women in the slums are usually excluded from financial programs–even microfinance ones. In my empirical study which currently examines of 491 people in Jamaica, Guyana and Haiti as it relates to informal banking systems will expand to include a comparative study of marginlized Canadians engaging in ROSCAs. These banks known as ROSCAs not only provide coping tools for livelihood survival, but banker ladies insert a program of social connectedness and political action when they organize these local resources. Banker ladies have a clear social justice agenda: to validate the business activities of marginalized people. Informal banks counter fundamnetalist markets because it is focused on the collective, where Black women in the Americas are creating alternative financial programs that are squarely part of the social economy.

Project Type: Funded
Role: Principle investigator


Start Date:  Month: Dec  Year: 2012
End Date:  Month: Dec  Year: 2017

Collaborator Institution: UWI Mona, Jamaica; Quisqueya ONG, Haiti, Center for IDS, Guyana

Gender-based violence in markets

Summary: 
To examine the violence perpetuated against micro/small business women as they travel to conduct business and trade. I draw on empirical data from Haiti as well as reflections from earlier work in the Great Lakes region of Africa.

Description: 
In December 2013, I carried out gender equality research in agricultural value chains to understand the GBV and constraints experienced by female agribusiness owners in Cap Haitian, northern Haiti. In the pipeline are two articles, “Haiti’s “middle-men” are poor women: The madam saras” and “Gender-based violence and madam saras in the market arena.” An article, “Haiti’s Caisses Populaires: Home-grown solutions to bring economic democracy” has been published by the International Journal of Social Economy in January 2014. As of 2008, I am a researcher affiliated with the Institut Interuniversite de Recherche et du Developpement (INURED) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and this new project builds on the former work examining the caisses populaires system.

Project Type: Funded
Role: Principle investigator


Start Date:  Month: May  Year: 2011
End Date:  Month: Dec  Year: 2014

Collaborator Institution: Making Cents, INGO; Catholic University of Bukavu (DR Congo)

Black Social Economy in the Americas: Exploring Diverse Community-Based Alternative Markets

Summary: 
The start of the Black social economy hub


Project Type: Self-Funded

Start Date:  Month: Sep  Year: 2015
End Date:  Month: Sep  Year: 2018

Funders: 
start up funds

Role: Principle investigator


Start Date:  Month: Apr  Year: 2013
End Date:  Month: Sep  Year: 2015

Bacchanal Microfinance: Government-owned microfinance in Trinidad and Tobago

Description: 
Microfinance is viewed as banking upside down to bring in people excluded from formal financial systems. This ability of microfinance to raise the morale of the masses has also piqued the interest of political elites in the Caribbean. I argue that the Trinidadian microfinance sector is bacchanal (or in chaos) because the dominant government-owned micro bank’s rhetoric is to assist poor entrepreneurs; however, this does not seem to be the case. The state dominance in microfinance in Trinidad does not take the activities of small business people, who are mostly of African descent, from the shanties of east Port of Spain seriously. In fact, these economic resources are misused by political elites to satisfy party objectives over microfinance’s social and economic empowerment goals.

Project Type: Funded
Role: Principle investigator


Start Date:  Month: Jun  Year: 2012
End Date:  Month: Nov  Year: 2015

Funders: 
SSHRC Small Grants (Internal)
LAPS Minor Grant

ROSCAs among Black Canadians in Toronto and Montreal

Description: 
ROSCAs like other actors in the social economy strive to create useful forms of social capital where people are a part of the process to decide how things occur. Clifford Geertz (1962), argue that with more modernity that these informal banks are underdeveloped forms of cooperatives or as a “middle-rung institution” that will disappear once formal banks become more accessible. However, Ardener and Burman (1996) find that Geertz’s theory that informal banks inevitably become redundant to be untrue because they find that even in saturated banking markets, informal banks are prevalent. I will build on Ardener and Burman's ideas that it is the informality of these banks that make ROSCAs distinctive. That these ROSCAs do not have to conform to a certain norm also has its appeal. And, that as immigrants move to new countries, especially in large cities in the developed world, people are finding there is a need to continue ROSCAs. I examine whether ROSCAs are more than simply economic programs and they reach people’s needs for cultural and social interaction or whether they are ways of coping when excluded within their new society.

Project Type: Self-Funded

Start Date:  Month: Mar  Year: 2016
End Date:  Month: Mar  Year: 2019


Start Date:  Month: Apr  Year: 2016
End Date:  Month: Aug  Year: 2019

Collaborator: 

All Publications

Monographs

Politicized Microfinance: Money, power and violence in the Black Americas. The University of Toronto Press. July 2016. See: http://www.utppublishing.com/Politicized-Microfinance-Money-Power-and-Violence-in-the-Black-Americas.html

The Black Social Economy in the Americas: Exploring Diverse Community-Based Alternative Markets. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. (Edited book, in preparation)

Business and Society: A Critical Introduction. London: Zed Books. 2017. Co-edited with K. Birch et al.

Book Chapters

Collective banks build up civil society: Two cases in Jamaica and Guyana. Chapter in Yovanovich, Gordana and Rice, Roberta (under contract) Re-Imagining Communities. London: Routledge. 2016.

Business and Social Exclusion chapter in Birch, K; et al.Business and Society: A Critical Introduction. London: Zed Books, 2017.

Spread of Capitalism. chapter in Birch, K; et al.Business and Society: A Critical Introduction. London: Zed Books. 2017. Co-written with Kean Birch.

Journal Articles

Going local in downtown Kingston, Jamaica: Doing qualitative research in a volatile urban environment. Qualitative Research Journal. Volume 16:4 (November): 345-361.

Money pools in the Americas: The African diaspora’s legacy in the social economy. Accepted and forthcoming in the Forum of Social Economics. Volume XLV: 4 (November): 309-328.

’Big Man’ politics in the social economy: A case study of microfinance in Kingston, Jamaica. Review of Social Economy. Volume 74:2 (April 2016): 148-171. ** Winner of the Helen Potter Award for best journal article from the Association of Social Economics, conferred at Allied Social Science Conference and American Economics Association, Chicago, 7 January 2017.

Black women in the marketplace: The everyday gendered risks encountered by Haiti’s madan saras (women traders). Work Organisation, Labour and Globalisation. Special issue Intersectionality, Work and Globalization. Nov 2015.

Black women as cooperators: Rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs) in the Caribbean and Canada. Journal of Cooperative Studies. Winter 2015.

Government-owned micro-banking and financial exclusion: A case study of small business people in east Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Canadian Journal for Latin American and Caribbean Studies.(Nov 2015). Volume 40(3): 393-409.

The Exclusion of Afro-Guyanese Hucksters in Micro-banking. The European Review of Latin America and Caribbean Studies. Volume 96: 75-98, April 2014.

The Politics of Resistance: Informal Banks in the Caribbean. The Review of Black Political Economy. Volume 41: 1, 85-100. March 2014.

Haiti's Caisses Populaires: Home-grown Solutions to bring Economic Democracy. International Journal of Social Economics. Volume 41: 1, 42-59, January 2014.

The Black Social Economy: Perseverance of Banker Ladies in the Slums. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics. Volume 83:4, 423-442. 4 December 2013.

Using a Black Feminist framework: A Study comparing bias against female entrepreneurs in Caribbean micro-banking.Intersectionalities: A Global Journal of Social Work Analysis, Research, Polity, and Practice. 20 September 2013: 50-71.

An Egyptian Case Study: Financial Services for Youth.(co-authored Redfern and Carothers), International Journal of Emerging Markets. Volume 1, Issue 4: 329–340. October 2006.

Thinking Outside the Islamic Box: Linking Context and Credit in Muslim West Africa. Critical Half Journal. October 2004.

Conference Papers

"Post-capitalist politics and the African diaspora: Strong credit union cultures in Haiti and Grenada." University of West Indies School of Business & Management, Mona Campus. 10 November 2016.

“Garveyism in the social economies of the African diaspora in the West Indies and Canada.” A symposium on Global Garvey, Richmond, VA. April 21-23.

"Money Pools in the Americas: The African Diaspora's Legacy in the Social Economy." National Conference of Black Political Scientists. Jackson, MS, US, 16 to 20 March 2016.

"Persons of African descent create inclusive financial systems.” International Conference of Public Policy. Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan Italy. July 1-4, 2015. Invited to a panel on multi-scalarity and public policy.

“A counter movement: African self-help groups in the Americas.” World Congress of the Association for Social Economics. Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario. June 22-24, 2015.

Haiti's home-grown caisses populaires: Locally inspired solutions to bring about economic democracy. The 45th Annual conference for the National Conference of Black Political Scientists. Analyzing the Black political community, people, policy, process, and politics in an era of globalization. 10 to 16 March 2014.

“The Black Social Economy: Counter-acts to Modern Banking.” Enduring the Legacy of Karl Polanyi. Concordia University, The Polanyi Institute, Montreal, November 5-8, 2014.

“The Politics of Resistance: Informal banks in the Caribbean.” Challenges of Global Governance Organization. World Congress of International Political Science Association (IPSA). Montreal, Quebec, July 19-24, 2014.

Caribbean Spaces and Institutions: Contesting Paradigms of Development in the 21st Century. “Gender in Caribbean Microfinance.” The 38th Caribbean Studies Association meeting. 2-7 June 2013.

Black Power Re-conceptualized: Black Activists, Black Intellectuals and the Politics of Disparity. “The Politics of Microfinance Compared in the Slums of Jamaica, Guyana and Haiti.” The 44th Annual Meeting of the National Conference of Black Political Scientists. Chicago, 13-17 March 2013.

Annual Congress Conference. “Politics of Microfinance in the Caribbean.” Canadian International Development Association. Waterloo University, June 2012. Nominated and short-listed for Kari Polanyi Levitt Award.

Partners in Development—Building a Better Future through Cooperation. “Politics of Microfinance in Jamaica, Guyana and Haiti.” International Development Studies, Graduate Student Conference, Saint Mary’s University, 15 to 17 March, 2012.

Annual Congress Conference. “Politics of Caribbean Microfinance: Jamaica, Guyana and Haiti Compared.” Canadian Political Science Association, May 2011. Wilfred Laurier University, Waterloo, On.

The Politics of Hard times. “Going Local: Using Qualitative Methodologies in Complex Urban Settings.” 106th Annual Meetings American Political Science Association, September 2010. Washington, DC.

Annual Congress. Connected Understanding. “Partisan Politics and Tribalism in Microfinance: The Jamaican Case” and “Topsy Turvy Microfinance: Rethinking Gender and Identity in Downtown Kingston.” Canadian Political Science Association, June 2010, Montreal.

Centering the Caribbean in the Caribbean. “How to use a Black feminist framework in Political Science research.” 34th Caribbean Studies Association, Kingston, Jamaica, June, 2009.

Annual Congress Conference. At the Crossroads of Empire. “A Critical Review of Remittances in the Global Economy: Are gifts from abroad a part of the neoliberal agenda?” CALACS, Vancouver, June 2008.

Identity Politics in the US and Abroad: Race, the Black Diaspora and Electoral Politics Conference. “How to use a Black Feminist framework in Comparative Politics,” National Conference of Black Political Scientists, Chicago IL, March 2008. Received Graduate Award.

Black Feminist Thought Conference. Paper delivered on “Black Feminism and Development,” University of Toronto, OISE, December 2007. Co-chair and conference organizer.

Book Reviews

Edited by Roelvink, Gerda, Kevin St. Martin and J.K. Gibson-Graham. 2015. Making Other Worlds Possible: Performing Diverse Economies. (Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press) . Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography. 7 pages, 2016. See more at: https://radicalantipode.files.wordpress.com/2016/04/book-review_hossein-on-roelvink-et-al.pdf

Edited by Richard Sandbrook and Ali Burak Güven. 2014. Civilizing Globalization, Revised and Expanded Edition: A Survival Guide. (New York: SUNY Press) . Canadian Journal of Political Science. 2016.

Gordon Nembhard, Jessica. 2014. Collective Courage: African American: A History of African American Cooperative Economic Thought and Practice (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania University Press). 10 pages. A slight adaptation. Reprinted with permission on the Black Canadian Studies. See more at: http://www.blackcanadianstudies.com/book_reviews/

Sinclair, Hugh. 2012. Confessions of a Microfinance Heretic (Oakland, California: Berrett-Koehler). Enterprise Development and Microfinance (Sept 2014) Vol. 25, No. 3: 261-264.

Research Reports

“Understanding gender-specific constraints for Haiti’s women micro-entrepreneurs in the northern corridor.” Making Cents International (NGO). 27 December 2013.

"Facilitating Cross-Border Trade between the DRC and Neighbors in the Great Lakes Region of Africa: Improving Conditions for Poor Traders." The World Bank Group. Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Africa Region Report No.62992-AFR. June 2011.

"Risky Business? Poor Women Food Traders in the Borderlands of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi." World Bank report. October 2010.

"Perspectives Inna di Yard: Improving Access to Microfinance." Inter-American Development Bank report. January 2010.

"Understanding the Impact of Employment, Entrepreneurship and Training Programs on Youth in Jordan and Rwanda," microNOTE 52. USAID. Nov 2008.

Public Lectures

The Black Social Economy: “Banker Ladies” and Money Pools in the Americas, University of Pittsburgh, 15 Feb 2017.

Politicized microfinance. University of Toronto, 16 November 2016.

Politicized microfinance (a book lecture). Studies in National and International Development, Queen's University, 13 October 2016.

"The Black Social Economy: Banker Ladies and Money Pools in the Americas." Centre for Feminist Research, York University, Toronto, 22 October 2015

Conference theme: “Decolonizing Development: Opportunities & Alternatives Post-2015.” Paper titled: “Bankers to the Poor: Oppressors or Champions?” Fourth Annual International Development Conference at the University of Toronto Scarborough (UTSC), 7-8 February 2015.

“Violence and Politics in Microfinance: A study of small business people of African descent in the Americas.” Tubman Talks at Harriet Tubman Institute, York University, Toronto, 23 October 2014.

Local economic development: Is there a role for microfinance? “Is Microfinance losing its fairy dust?: Financial inclusion in the Caribbean.” International Development Research Centre (IDRC). Sponsored by Canadian Cooperative Association, Inter Pares and Canadian Coalition to end Global Poverty. 1 October 2013.

“Social justice and micro-banking.” Colloquia for Social Justice and Peace Studies program at King’s College, University of West Ontario, London, 30 Oct 2013.

“Topsy Turvy Microfinance in Downtown Kingston.” Caribbean Policy Research Institute (CAPRI), UWI/Mona Senate Lounge, Jamaica, 26 October 2009.

Creative Works

A trusted ancient African tradition of savings. Montreal Community Contact newspaper, 25 July 2016. http://montrealcommunitycontact.com/a-trusted-ancient-african-tradition-of-savings/

“Cultural Bias in Financial Development Programs: The Afro-Caribbean Experience.” Panoramas provides a web-based venue for thoughtful dialogue of Latin American and Caribbean issues. May 11, 2015. http://www.panoramas.pitt.edu/content/cultural-bias-financial-development-programs-afro-caribbean-experience#sthash.MPItWVag.dpuf

“Bank accounting: Class and race and the 'right to bank'.” Rabble.ca. March 23, 2015. http://rabble.ca/blogs/bloggers/views-expressed/2015/03/bank-accounting-class-and-race-and-right-to-bank

Black Creek Financial Action Network, Jane and Finch. TD Community Engagement Centre (CEC), Yorkgate Mall. “Gro’ wid People: Understanding the Black social economy in Canada.” 22 January 2015.

“The Harper Government Commercializes International Development.” Ottawa Citizen on-line Blogs. 7 May 2013. http://blogs.ottawacitizen.com/2013/05/07/caroline-shenaz-hossein-the-harper-government-commercializes-international-development-2/

“Losing CIDA, Canadian International Development Agency.” Straight Good News. 23 April 2013. http://sgnews.ca/2013/04/22/losing-cida-the-canadian-international-development-agency/

Forthcoming

The Black Banker Ladies of Canada: A preliminary study to examine how African-Canadians humanize banking.

Fringe Banking in Canada: The Collective Economies of Toronto’s “Banker Ladies.”

Post-capitalist politics and the African diaspora: Strong credit union cultures in Haiti and Grenada.

A Black perspective on Canada’s third sector: Case studies on Women leaders in the social economy.

Living Garveyism: African-Canadian women build local community banks

Business from a Black perspective: Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association-African Communities League (U.N.I.A-A.C.L) contribution to the field of business ethics. Co-written with Russell Benjamin.


Teaching:

Approach To Teaching
2016 to 2017 SOSC 1341 Introduction to the Social Economy SOSC 4046 The Social Economy Practicum ======== Past courses taught: SOSC 3041 The Social Economy and Alternative Development; SOSC 3042 Social Exclusion and Business in the Global South; SOSC 3043 Comparative Perspectives on Social Exclusion and Business; SOSC 4040 Issues in Business and Society; SOSC 4046 The Social Economy Practicum


Upcoming Courses

TermCourse NumberSectionTitleType 
Fall/Winter 2017-2018 AP/SOSC1341 9.0  Introduction to the Social Economy LECT  
Fall/Winter 2017-2018 AP/SOSC4046 6.0  Social Economy Practicum  SEMR