Michael A Gilbert

Department of Philosophy

Professor

Office: Ross Building, S424
Phone: (416) 736-2100 Ext: 77584
Emailgilbert@yorku.ca
Primary websitewww.gilbert.info.yorku.ca/

Michael A. Gilbert began studying philosophy in 1962 at what was then Hunter College in the Bronx, a part of the City University of New York, and has yet to stop. His first field of research is Argumentation Theory, an interdisciplinary area including scholars from Philosophy, Linguistics, Social Psychology, and Communication Theory. His approach is radical insofar as it places emphasis and demands credibility for non-logical modes of communication. Information in arguments is exchanged not through statements, but through messages which include familiar meaning, context, bodily communications, power relations, and intuitions to list but a few of the many resources ordinary people use.

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Gilbert’s second area of research which sometimes overlaps, is Gender and Transgender Theory. There he investigates the foundation and nature of the socially constructed gender binary, and examines its institutional and social implementation. In particular, he focuses on the role of gender diversity as an activity that disrupts the norm and unsettles the binary. As a life-long cross-dresser he investigates that practice both as Michael and as his femme alter ego, Miqqi Alicia Gilbert with an eye toward re-establishing cross-dressing as an opportunity for personal growth and exploration.

Area of Specialization

Philosophy

Degrees

Ph.D., University of Waterloo
BA, City University of New York

Community Contributions

2013 Three Pillars of Argumentation. York Circle. Sept 28 2013. 2013 Introduction of Panel: Gender Diverse Children. Painting a Rainbow. 25 Sept 2013. 2012 The Joke’s On Us: The Acceptability of Trans Discrimination. Canadian Association for the Prevention of Discrimination and Harassment in Higher Education. Toronto, ON May 2-5, 2012. 2012 The Joke’s On Us: The Acceptability of Trans Discrimination. Canadian Association for the Prevention of Discrimination and Harassment in Higher Education. Toronto, ON May 2-5, 2012.

Research Interests

Philosophy , Gender Issues , Critical Reasoning, Argumentation Theory, Informal Logic

All Publications

Books

Arguing with People 2014 Broadview Press

How To Win An Argument, 2008. 3rd Revised Edition. UPA.

Coalescent Argumentation, 1997. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

How To Win An Argument, 1996. 2nd Revised Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (Translated into Japanese, Swedish, Polish, and Spanish.)

Hostile Takeover, 1988. SC Entertainment, Toronto. George Mihalka, Dir.

Yellow Angel. 1985. New York: Simon & Schuster Pocketbooks.

Office Party. 1981. New York: Linden Press/Simon & Schuster.

How To Win An Argument, 1979. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Journal Articles

2009. Defeating Bigenderism: Changing gender assumptions in the 21st century. Hypatia 24 (3):93-112.

2007 “Natural Normativity: Argumentation Theory as an Engaged Discipline.” 2007. Informal Logic. 27:2:149-161.

2005 Booth, W. C. The Rhetoric of Rhetoric: The Quest for Effective Communication Informal Logic 27:3:303-304

2004 “Introduction: Argumentation Theory & Artificial Intelligence.” 2004. Informal Logic 22: 191-194.

2004 “E-motion: Moving Toward the Utilization of Artificial Emotion.” 2004. Gilbert, Michael A., and Chris Reed Informal Logic 22: 275-91.

2002 “Robert J. Rowe. Bert & Lori: The Autobiography of a Crossdresser.” 2002. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 31:2:221-222.

2002 “Deirdre McCloskey. Crossing.” 2002. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 31:2:222-225.

2002 “Effing the Ineffable: The Logocentric Fallacy.” 2002. Argumentation. 16:1:21-32.

2001 “Emotional Messages.” 2001. 15:3:239:249. Argumentation. 15:3:239:249.

2000 “The Transgendered Philosopher.” 2000 International Journal of Transgenderism. Volume 4, Number 3, July – September. [http://www.symposion.com/ijt/index.htm]

1999 “L. Feinberg, Transgender Warrior.” 1999. Journal of Homosexuality. 38:3:154-156.

1996 “D. Walton, Emotion in Everyday Argument.” 1996. Philosophy Of The Social Sciences.

1996 “The Delimitation of ‘Argument’.” 1996 Inquiry. 15:1:63-75.

1995 “Feminism, Argumentation & Coalescence.” 1995. Informal Logic, 16:2:95-113.

1995 “Coalescent Argumentation.” 1995. Argumentation, 9:5:837-852.

1995 “Argument & Arguers.” 1995. Teaching Philosophy, 18:2:125-138.

1994 “Multi-Modal Argumentation.” 1994. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 24:2:159-177.

1993 “C.A. Willard, A Theory of Argumentation.” 1993. Philosophy Of The Social Sciences, 23:2:257-262.

1993 “The Enthymeme Buster: A Heuristic Procedure for Position Exploration In Dialogic Dispute”. 1993. Informal Logic. 13: 3:159-166.

1985 “D. Hitchcock, Critical Reasoning.” 1985. Dialogue, Spring, 24:1:559-562.

1983 “Interview On An April Afternoon.” 1983. Matrix, Spring.

1982 “Heaven-57.” 1982. Nebula, Winter.

1978 “Susan Haack, Deviant Logic: Some Philosophical Issues.” 1978. Philosophy of Science. 45:1:149-151.

1976 “A Heuristic Procedure For Natural Deduction Using Reductio Ad Absurdum.” 1976. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, 17: 4.

Professional Journal Articles

2000 “Deirdre McCloskey. Crossing.” 2000. The Globe and Mail. 22 January 2000, p. D5.

1996 “M. Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor.” 1996. Toronto Globe and Mail. 17 August.

1996 “L. Feinberg, Transgender Warriors.” 1996. Toronto Globe & Mail, 27 July.

1994 “K. Bornstein, Gender Outlaw.” 1994. Toronto Globe & Mail, 24 Dec.

1994 “B. Levin, A World Elsewhere.” 1994. Toronto Globe & Mail, 9 July.

1986 “Gideon finds the Truth.” 1986. Now Magazine, 5:33, April.

Book Reviews

2008 Valentine, David. Imagining Transgender: An Ethnography of a Category. Transgender Tapestry #115.

2008 Ekins, Richard, and Dave King. The Transgender Phenomenon. Transgender Tapestry #115.

2008 Girshick, Lori B. Transgender Voices: Beyond Women and Men. 2008. Transgender Tapestry #115

2008 Brown, Mildred L., and Chloe Ann Rounsley. True Selves : Understanding Transsexualism--for Families, Friends, Coworkers, and Helping Professionals. Transgender Tapestry #115

2007 “Informal Logic and Intersectionality.” 2007. in H. V. Hansen and R. C. Pinto, (eds.), Reason Reclaimed, ValePress.

2006 “The Feminist Crossdresser.” 2006 in Trans/Forming Feminisms, edited by Krista Scott-Dixon. Toronto: Sumach Press.

2004 Hample, D. Arguing : Exchanging Reasons Face to Face. 2004 [Released in 2006.] Informal Logic.

2004 “Docter, Richard F. 2004. From Man to Woman: The Transgender Journey of Virginia Prince.” Northridge, CA: Docter Press. Transgender Tapestry.

2003 “Makau, J.M. & Marty, D. L. Cooperative Argumentation: A Model for Deliberative Community.” 2003. Informal Logic.

2003 “Bloom, Amy. 2003. Normal: Transsexual CEOs, Crossdressing Cops, and Hermaphrodites with Attitude. Transgender Tapestry .

2000 “A Sometime Woman: Gender Choice and Cross-Socialization.” 2000. In Felicity, Haynes & McKenna, Tarquam. Unseen Genders: Beyond the Binaries. Pp. 43-52. New York: Peter Lang.

1998 “G. Colwell, You Won’t Believe This, But.” 1998. Argumentation.

1997 “Beyond Appearances: Transgenderism and Gendered Rationality.” 1997. In Gender Blending. pp. 58-69. Bonnie Bullough, Vern L. Bullough, and James ELias, eds., Buffalo: Prometheus Press.

Published Reviews Of Your Work

2006 “Moving Stages in Pragma-Dialectics,” in F. H. v. Eemeren, P. Houstlosser, C. A. Willard and J. A. Blair, (eds.), ISSA, Sic Sat, Amsterdam. Amsterdam, Holland June 25-28, 2006

2005 “Der Philosoph jenseits der Geschlechter.” 2005. Tr. Julia. http://people.freenet.de/Jula.Me/tgphilosopher.htm#_Toc103603734 Translation of “The Transgendered Philosopher.” 2000.

2005 “Argument Use in Gendered Contexts.” 2005. In David Hitchcock & Daniel [ed. Ass't] Farr, (eds.), The Uses of Argument: Proceedings of a conference at McMaster University, 18-21 May 2005, Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation,, Hamilton, ON, pp. 139-147.Published as Gilbert, Miqqi Alicia.

2004 “Emotion, Argumentation & Informal Logic.” 2004 [Released in 2006.] Informal Logic.

2004 “Emotion and the Pragma-Dialectic Model.” 2004. In The Practice of Argumentation, edited by Frans. H. van Eemeren and Peter Houstlosser. Holland: Walter Benjamins.

2003 “Let’s Talk: Emotion and the Pragma-Dialectic Model.” Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation. Amsterdam, 2002, Frans van Eemeren, Rob Grootendorst, J. Anthony Blair, & Charles A. Willard, eds. 2003

2003 “Commentary on P. Courtenay Hall’s ‘The Limits of Critical Thinking’.” Informal Logic at 25: Proceedings of the Windsor Conference. J. Anthony Blair, Daniel Farr, Hans V. Hansen, Ralph H. Johnson, & Christopher W. Tindale (Eds.). Windsor, ON: OSSA, 2003

2003 “But why call it an Argument?: In Defense of the Linguistically Inexplicable” Informal Logic at 25: Proceedings of the Windsor Conference. J. Anthony Blair, Daniel Farr, Hans V. Hansen, Ralph H. Johnson, & Christopher W. Tindale (Eds.). Windsor, ON: OSSA, 2003

2003 “Acercándose a los Estudiantes: Haciendo El Pensamiento Crítico Real.” Keynote Adress. [“Going to the Students: Making Critical Thinking Real”] Primer Congreso de Egresados de la Maestría en Educación del Sistema Tecnológico de Monterrey. Monterrey, México, August 2002. In Proceedings of same 2003.

2003 “'The Persuasion Machine: An Exercise in Argumentation and Computational Linguistics.” Gilbert, M. A., Grasso, F., Groarke, L., Gurr, C. and Gerlofs, J.: 2003. in Reed, C. and T. J. Normoan, (eds.), Argumentation Machines: New Frontiers in Argument and Computation, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.1-4020-1811-8

2001 “Ideal Argumentation.” 2001. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. Windsor, Ontario.

2001 “Getting Good Value: Facts, Values, and Goals In Computational Linguistics.” 2001. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science, San Francisco, May 2001.

2000 “Agreement/Disagreement.” 2000. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. Hans Hansen & Chris Tindale, Eds.

1999 “Language, Words and Expressive Speech Acts.” 1999. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation. Frans van Eemeren, Rob Grootendorst, J. Anthony Blair, & Charles A. Willard, Eds. pp. 231-234.

1998 “Prolegomenon to a Pragmatics of Emotion.” 1998. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation, CD-ROM.

1996 “Goals In Argumentation.” 1996. Proceedings of the Formal and Applied Practical Reasoning Symposium. Bonn, Germany, 1996. Springer-Verlag.

1995 “Why Do Argumentation Theorists Quarrel With Their Mates? Or, What Is an Emotional Argument?” 1995. Proceedings of the 1994 ISSA Conference, Amsterdam. Amsterdam: SicSat.

Upcoming Courses

TermCourse NumberSectionTitleType 
Fall 2017 AP/PHIL2250 3.0  Philosophy of Gender and Sexuality LECT  
Fall 2017 AP/PHIL4220 3.0  Seminar in Argumentation Theory SEMR  


Michael A. Gilbert began studying philosophy in 1962 at what was then Hunter College in the Bronx, a part of the City University of New York, and has yet to stop. His first field of research is Argumentation Theory, an interdisciplinary area including scholars from Philosophy, Linguistics, Social Psychology, and Communication Theory. His approach is radical insofar as it places emphasis and demands credibility for non-logical modes of communication. Information in arguments is exchanged not through statements, but through messages which include familiar meaning, context, bodily communications, power relations, and intuitions to list but a few of the many resources ordinary people use.


Gilbert’s second area of research which sometimes overlaps, is Gender and Transgender Theory. There he investigates the foundation and nature of the socially constructed gender binary, and examines its institutional and social implementation. In particular, he focuses on the role of gender diversity as an activity that disrupts the norm and unsettles the binary. As a life-long cross-dresser he investigates that practice both as Michael and as his femme alter ego, Miqqi Alicia Gilbert with an eye toward re-establishing cross-dressing as an opportunity for personal growth and exploration.

Area of Specialization

Philosophy

Degrees

Ph.D., University of Waterloo
BA, City University of New York

Community Contributions

2013 Three Pillars of Argumentation. York Circle. Sept 28 2013. 2013 Introduction of Panel: Gender Diverse Children. Painting a Rainbow. 25 Sept 2013. 2012 The Joke’s On Us: The Acceptability of Trans Discrimination. Canadian Association for the Prevention of Discrimination and Harassment in Higher Education. Toronto, ON May 2-5, 2012. 2012 The Joke’s On Us: The Acceptability of Trans Discrimination. Canadian Association for the Prevention of Discrimination and Harassment in Higher Education. Toronto, ON May 2-5, 2012.

Research Interests:

Philosophy , Gender Issues , Critical Reasoning, Argumentation Theory, Informal Logic

All Publications

Books

Arguing with People 2014 Broadview Press

How To Win An Argument, 2008. 3rd Revised Edition. UPA.

Coalescent Argumentation, 1997. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

How To Win An Argument, 1996. 2nd Revised Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (Translated into Japanese, Swedish, Polish, and Spanish.)

Hostile Takeover, 1988. SC Entertainment, Toronto. George Mihalka, Dir.

Yellow Angel. 1985. New York: Simon & Schuster Pocketbooks.

Office Party. 1981. New York: Linden Press/Simon & Schuster.

How To Win An Argument, 1979. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Journal Articles

2009. Defeating Bigenderism: Changing gender assumptions in the 21st century. Hypatia 24 (3):93-112.

2007 “Natural Normativity: Argumentation Theory as an Engaged Discipline.” 2007. Informal Logic. 27:2:149-161.

2005 Booth, W. C. The Rhetoric of Rhetoric: The Quest for Effective Communication Informal Logic 27:3:303-304

2004 “Introduction: Argumentation Theory & Artificial Intelligence.” 2004. Informal Logic 22: 191-194.

2004 “E-motion: Moving Toward the Utilization of Artificial Emotion.” 2004. Gilbert, Michael A., and Chris Reed Informal Logic 22: 275-91.

2002 “Robert J. Rowe. Bert & Lori: The Autobiography of a Crossdresser.” 2002. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 31:2:221-222.

2002 “Deirdre McCloskey. Crossing.” 2002. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 31:2:222-225.

2002 “Effing the Ineffable: The Logocentric Fallacy.” 2002. Argumentation. 16:1:21-32.

2001 “Emotional Messages.” 2001. 15:3:239:249. Argumentation. 15:3:239:249.

2000 “The Transgendered Philosopher.” 2000 International Journal of Transgenderism. Volume 4, Number 3, July – September. [http://www.symposion.com/ijt/index.htm]

1999 “L. Feinberg, Transgender Warrior.” 1999. Journal of Homosexuality. 38:3:154-156.

1996 “D. Walton, Emotion in Everyday Argument.” 1996. Philosophy Of The Social Sciences.

1996 “The Delimitation of ‘Argument’.” 1996 Inquiry. 15:1:63-75.

1995 “Feminism, Argumentation & Coalescence.” 1995. Informal Logic, 16:2:95-113.

1995 “Coalescent Argumentation.” 1995. Argumentation, 9:5:837-852.

1995 “Argument & Arguers.” 1995. Teaching Philosophy, 18:2:125-138.

1994 “Multi-Modal Argumentation.” 1994. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 24:2:159-177.

1993 “C.A. Willard, A Theory of Argumentation.” 1993. Philosophy Of The Social Sciences, 23:2:257-262.

1993 “The Enthymeme Buster: A Heuristic Procedure for Position Exploration In Dialogic Dispute”. 1993. Informal Logic. 13: 3:159-166.

1985 “D. Hitchcock, Critical Reasoning.” 1985. Dialogue, Spring, 24:1:559-562.

1983 “Interview On An April Afternoon.” 1983. Matrix, Spring.

1982 “Heaven-57.” 1982. Nebula, Winter.

1978 “Susan Haack, Deviant Logic: Some Philosophical Issues.” 1978. Philosophy of Science. 45:1:149-151.

1976 “A Heuristic Procedure For Natural Deduction Using Reductio Ad Absurdum.” 1976. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, 17: 4.

Professional Journal Articles

2000 “Deirdre McCloskey. Crossing.” 2000. The Globe and Mail. 22 January 2000, p. D5.

1996 “M. Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor.” 1996. Toronto Globe and Mail. 17 August.

1996 “L. Feinberg, Transgender Warriors.” 1996. Toronto Globe & Mail, 27 July.

1994 “K. Bornstein, Gender Outlaw.” 1994. Toronto Globe & Mail, 24 Dec.

1994 “B. Levin, A World Elsewhere.” 1994. Toronto Globe & Mail, 9 July.

1986 “Gideon finds the Truth.” 1986. Now Magazine, 5:33, April.

Book Reviews

2008 Valentine, David. Imagining Transgender: An Ethnography of a Category. Transgender Tapestry #115.

2008 Ekins, Richard, and Dave King. The Transgender Phenomenon. Transgender Tapestry #115.

2008 Girshick, Lori B. Transgender Voices: Beyond Women and Men. 2008. Transgender Tapestry #115

2008 Brown, Mildred L., and Chloe Ann Rounsley. True Selves : Understanding Transsexualism--for Families, Friends, Coworkers, and Helping Professionals. Transgender Tapestry #115

2007 “Informal Logic and Intersectionality.” 2007. in H. V. Hansen and R. C. Pinto, (eds.), Reason Reclaimed, ValePress.

2006 “The Feminist Crossdresser.” 2006 in Trans/Forming Feminisms, edited by Krista Scott-Dixon. Toronto: Sumach Press.

2004 Hample, D. Arguing : Exchanging Reasons Face to Face. 2004 [Released in 2006.] Informal Logic.

2004 “Docter, Richard F. 2004. From Man to Woman: The Transgender Journey of Virginia Prince.” Northridge, CA: Docter Press. Transgender Tapestry.

2003 “Makau, J.M. & Marty, D. L. Cooperative Argumentation: A Model for Deliberative Community.” 2003. Informal Logic.

2003 “Bloom, Amy. 2003. Normal: Transsexual CEOs, Crossdressing Cops, and Hermaphrodites with Attitude. Transgender Tapestry .

2000 “A Sometime Woman: Gender Choice and Cross-Socialization.” 2000. In Felicity, Haynes & McKenna, Tarquam. Unseen Genders: Beyond the Binaries. Pp. 43-52. New York: Peter Lang.

1998 “G. Colwell, You Won’t Believe This, But.” 1998. Argumentation.

1997 “Beyond Appearances: Transgenderism and Gendered Rationality.” 1997. In Gender Blending. pp. 58-69. Bonnie Bullough, Vern L. Bullough, and James ELias, eds., Buffalo: Prometheus Press.

Published Reviews Of Your Work

2006 “Moving Stages in Pragma-Dialectics,” in F. H. v. Eemeren, P. Houstlosser, C. A. Willard and J. A. Blair, (eds.), ISSA, Sic Sat, Amsterdam. Amsterdam, Holland June 25-28, 2006

2005 “Der Philosoph jenseits der Geschlechter.” 2005. Tr. Julia. http://people.freenet.de/Jula.Me/tgphilosopher.htm#_Toc103603734 Translation of “The Transgendered Philosopher.” 2000.

2005 “Argument Use in Gendered Contexts.” 2005. In David Hitchcock & Daniel [ed. Ass't] Farr, (eds.), The Uses of Argument: Proceedings of a conference at McMaster University, 18-21 May 2005, Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation,, Hamilton, ON, pp. 139-147.Published as Gilbert, Miqqi Alicia.

2004 “Emotion, Argumentation & Informal Logic.” 2004 [Released in 2006.] Informal Logic.

2004 “Emotion and the Pragma-Dialectic Model.” 2004. In The Practice of Argumentation, edited by Frans. H. van Eemeren and Peter Houstlosser. Holland: Walter Benjamins.

2003 “Let’s Talk: Emotion and the Pragma-Dialectic Model.” Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation. Amsterdam, 2002, Frans van Eemeren, Rob Grootendorst, J. Anthony Blair, & Charles A. Willard, eds. 2003

2003 “Commentary on P. Courtenay Hall’s ‘The Limits of Critical Thinking’.” Informal Logic at 25: Proceedings of the Windsor Conference. J. Anthony Blair, Daniel Farr, Hans V. Hansen, Ralph H. Johnson, & Christopher W. Tindale (Eds.). Windsor, ON: OSSA, 2003

2003 “But why call it an Argument?: In Defense of the Linguistically Inexplicable” Informal Logic at 25: Proceedings of the Windsor Conference. J. Anthony Blair, Daniel Farr, Hans V. Hansen, Ralph H. Johnson, & Christopher W. Tindale (Eds.). Windsor, ON: OSSA, 2003

2003 “Acercándose a los Estudiantes: Haciendo El Pensamiento Crítico Real.” Keynote Adress. [“Going to the Students: Making Critical Thinking Real”] Primer Congreso de Egresados de la Maestría en Educación del Sistema Tecnológico de Monterrey. Monterrey, México, August 2002. In Proceedings of same 2003.

2003 “'The Persuasion Machine: An Exercise in Argumentation and Computational Linguistics.” Gilbert, M. A., Grasso, F., Groarke, L., Gurr, C. and Gerlofs, J.: 2003. in Reed, C. and T. J. Normoan, (eds.), Argumentation Machines: New Frontiers in Argument and Computation, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.1-4020-1811-8

2001 “Ideal Argumentation.” 2001. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. Windsor, Ontario.

2001 “Getting Good Value: Facts, Values, and Goals In Computational Linguistics.” 2001. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science, San Francisco, May 2001.

2000 “Agreement/Disagreement.” 2000. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. Hans Hansen & Chris Tindale, Eds.

1999 “Language, Words and Expressive Speech Acts.” 1999. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation. Frans van Eemeren, Rob Grootendorst, J. Anthony Blair, & Charles A. Willard, Eds. pp. 231-234.

1998 “Prolegomenon to a Pragmatics of Emotion.” 1998. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation, CD-ROM.

1996 “Goals In Argumentation.” 1996. Proceedings of the Formal and Applied Practical Reasoning Symposium. Bonn, Germany, 1996. Springer-Verlag.

1995 “Why Do Argumentation Theorists Quarrel With Their Mates? Or, What Is an Emotional Argument?” 1995. Proceedings of the 1994 ISSA Conference, Amsterdam. Amsterdam: SicSat.


Teaching:

Upcoming Courses

TermCourse NumberSectionTitleType 
Fall 2017 AP/PHIL2250 3.0  Philosophy of Gender and Sexuality LECT  
Fall 2017 AP/PHIL4220 3.0  Seminar in Argumentation Theory SEMR