Jacqueline D. Krikorian

Department of Political Science
Department of Social Science

Associate Professor

Office: Technology Enhanced Learning Building, 2048
Mailing Address: S672 Ross Building
Phone: 416-736-2100 Ext: 66229
Emailjdk@yorku.ca

Jacqueline Krikorian is an associate professor and a member of the bar of Ontario. She received a PhD from the University of Toronto (Political Science), an MA from Dalhousie (Political Science) and her law degree from Queen's University. She also was awarded two years of funding from the British Council that she used to complete an MLitt research degree from the University of Oxford (Modern History). In the winter 2014 term, Professor Krikorian held the prestigious Fulbright Visiting Research Chair in US-Canada Relations at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and was appointed as a Visiting Fellow at the Institute for International Economic Law at Georgetown University Law Center.

Professor Krikorian teaches in the Department of Political Science and in the Law & Society program at York University. She specializes in government and public law, with a particular emphasis on Canada and US relations. She has been the recipient of funding from a number of institutions including the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Fulbright Canada, and the Commonwealth awards program.

Her research has been published on-line by the World Trade Organization and the Washington International Trade Association and in print by several leading academic publishers - the University of Toronto Press, the University of British Columbia Press, Cambridge University Press, and Les Presses de l'Université Laval. Her research also can be found in several noted scholarly journals, including the Canadian Journal of Political Science, the University of Toronto Law Journal and the Journal of International Economic Law.

She has recently co-edited Globalizing Confederation: Canada and the World in 1867 (2017) and Roads to Confederation, The Making of Canada, 1867, volumes 1 and 2 (2017) that was translated in French, Vers la Confédération, La construction du Canada, 1867, tomes 1 et 2. Her book, International Trade Law and Domestic Public Policy: Canada, the United States and the WTO (2012), adopts the methodological approaches traditionally used to study the effect of domestic high courts in order to analyze the policy impact of decisions issued by the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. It has received strong reviews, including:

"This book is an impressive work of scholarship, and sets a new standard in the scope of analysis appropriate in analyzing the implications of WTO case law. The particular strength of the author’s analysis is her detailed investigation of the political motivations and origins of challenged measures and even more so the meticulous investigation of the consequences of particular decisions and domestic policy responses thereto. Trade law scholars conventionally have settled for parsing the doctrinal rulings of the Appellate Body, with little regard for the impact of these rulings on the actual policy-making process in affected countries. For her, the latter is a central focus of her analysis - in effect the impact of law or legal rulings ‘on the ground’, so to speak. In the light of the ambitions (largely realized) by the author in this book, trade law scholars in future are unlikely to be able to settle simply for parsing passages in Appellate Body rulings."
-- Michael J. Trebilcock, University of Toronto, from World Trade Review, 2013

"Krikorian has engaged in original scholarship to produce an insightful analysis of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism and its limited policy impact on Canada and the United States. She presents a detailed examination of all of the relevant WTO complaints against Canada and the United States that illuminates the interplay between the WTO law in question and the surrounding domestic policy concerns. Applying the law and politics literature to the WTO dispute resolution mechanism, she succeeds in achieving real interdisciplinary work that crosses the international law and political science divide and brings the two fields closer together."
-- Linda C. Reif, CN Professor of International Trade, Faculty of Law, University of Alberta, from The Canadian Yearbook of International Law, 2012

"The WTO dispute settlement mechanism is widely regarded as the most significant aspect of a very important attempt at international regime building. This book provides a new objective dimension in the analysis and understanding of this mechanism … It makes a significant original contribution across several academic subfields, including international trade law, international political economy, international law, and domestic legal theory."
-- Gilbert R. Winham, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science and Adjunct Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, Dalhousie University, 2012

“This book provides an original framework for analysis of the effects of the WTO’s binding dispute settlement on national policy making. It greatly adds to scholarly debate both in the field of WTO issues and, more generally, the interaction of supranational decisions on national policy making.”
-- Christopher Parlin is Principal, Parlin & Associates, and an Adjunct Professor of Law at Georgetown University, 2012

More...

Professor Krikorian has supervised over 45 MA students in law, socio-legal studies and political science and also participates in PhD dissertation committees. She has worked with graduate students in a range of areas including, constitutional and administrative law and policy; international law and international legal regimes; multilevel governance, federalism and intergovernmental relations; courts, judicial politics, and judicial administration; women and the law; legal history; and comparative legal systems.

As a student, she participated in a number of experiential learning programs that complemented her academic research. In Cape Town, South Africa, she undertook constitutional policy research and assisted in civil rights cases as an intern with the Legal Resources Centre. In Portland, Oregon, she worked as an intern in Ron Wyden’s constituency office when he was a member of the House of Representatives. And in Ottawa, Ontario she worked for both government and opposition members as a Parliamentary Intern.

Professor Krikorian can be reached via email at jdk@yorku.ca.

Degrees

PhD, University of Toronto (Political Science)
LLB, Queen's University (Faculty of Law)
MLitt, University of Oxford (Modern History)
MA, Dalhousie University (Political Science)
BA, Honours, Brock University (Politics/History)


Research Interests

Politics and Government , Law

Current Research Projects

Constitution-Making and the Emergence of the British North America Act, 1867

Summary: 
Although there is a considerable body of scholarship that focuses on Canadian Confederation, there is relatively little research on the making of the BNA Act, 1867. This project remedies this gap in the literature by undertaking the first comprehensive analysis of the emergence of the BNA Act, 1867. More specifically, it draws upon historical institutionalism to help explain the nature, origins and processes that led to its adoption. This study considers not only the architects' interests and goals in drafting Canada's first constitution, but it also assesses the institutional influences and constraints affecting its development in the decades prior to its adoption.

All Publications

Books

Single Authored (Refereed)

International Trade Law and Domestic Policy: Canada, the United States and the World Trade Organization. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2012.

Edited Collections (Refereed)

Roads to Confederation, The Making of Canada, 1867, volumes 1 and 2. Edited by Jacqueline D. Krikorian, David R. Cameron, Marcel Martel, Andrew W. McDougall and Robert C. Vipond. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017. Translated in French: Jacqueline D. Krikorian, David R. Cameron, Marcel Martel, Andrew W. McDougall et Robert C. Vipond, (dir.), Vers la Confédération, La construction du Canada, 1867, tomes 1 et 2. Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 2017.

Globalizing Confederation: Canada and the World in 1867. Edited by Jacqueline D. Krikorian, Marcel Martel, and Adrian Schubert. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017.

Journal Articles

Articles and Chapters (Refereed)

“Introduction, The Study of Confederation,” co-authored with David R. Cameron, Marcel Martel, Andrew W. McDougall and Robert C. Vipond, pp. 3-54, in Jacqueline D. Krikorian, David R. Cameron, Marcel Martel, Andrew W. McDougall and Robert C. Vipond, eds. Roads to Confederation, The Making of Canada, 1867, volume 1. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017. Translated in French, «Introduction: l’étude de la Confédération», 3-55, dans Jacqueline D. Krikorian, David R. Cameron, Marcel Martel, Andrew W. McDougall et Robert C. Vipond, (dir.), Vers la Confédération, La construction du Canada, 1867, tomes 1 et 2. Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 2017.

“Introduction, Canada and the World in 1867,” co-authored with Marcel Martel, and Adrian Schubert pp. 3-23, in Jacqueline D. Krikorian, Marcel Martel, and Adrian Schubert, eds., Globalizing Confederation: Canada and the World in 1867. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017.

“The 1867 Union of the British North American Colonies: A View From the United States,” co-authored with David R. Cameron. In Jacqueline D. Krikorian, Marcel Martel, and Adrian Schubert, eds., Globalizing Confederation: Canada and the World in 1867. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017.

“Recognizing Quebec in the Constitution of Canada: Using the Bilateral Constitutional Amendment Process.” University of Toronto Law Journal, volume 58, no. 4 (Fall 2008), 389-420. Co-authored with David R. Cameron. link

“Planes, Trains and Automobiles, The Impact of the WTO ‘Court’ on Canada in its First Ten Years.” Journal of International Economic Law, volume 8, no. 4 (2005), 921-975. link

“The Study of Federalism 1960-1999, A Content Review of Leading Canadian Academic Journals.” Canadian Public Administration, volume 45, no. 3 (2002), 328-363. Co-authored with David R. Cameron. link

“Canada, Criminal Appeals, and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the 1880s.” Review of Constitutional Studies, volume 6, no. 1 (2001), 44-78. link

“Imperial Politics and Canadian Judicial Independence.” Canadian Journal of Political Science, volume 33, no. 2 (2000), 291-332. link

A Different Form of Apartheid? The Legal Status of Married Women in South Africa.” Queen's Law Journal, volume 21, no. 1 (1995), 221-260. Reprinted in part, in Larry May, Nancy E. Snow and Angela Bolte, eds. Legal Philosophy: Multiple Perspectives. California: Mayfield, 2000 (585-592). link


Non-Refereed Articles

“Revisiting the 1865 Canadian debates on Confederation: Rights and the Constitution,” Canada Watch, Special Issue Reconsidering the Debates Over Canadian Confederation (Robarts Centre, Spring 1916), 13-15. Co-authored with David Cameron and Robert Vipond. link

“A New Approach to the Quebec Question,” Policy Options (October, 2009), 73-75. Co-authored with David R. Cameron. link

“Multi-Level Governance and Public Policy-Making in Canada: The WTO, Domestic Stakeholders, and the Auto Pact Case,” 134-149, in Peter Gallagher, Patrick Low and Andrew L. Stoler, eds. Managing the Challenges of WTO Participation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Available online: www.wto.org. link


Public Lectures

Selected Conference Presentations and Invited Talks

“Conflicts and Agreements: Canada’s Foundations and Their Consequences, 1865-1949.” Invited to participate on a panel sponsored by The Confederation Debates, March 31, 2017, University of Waterloo.

“The 1867 Union of the British North American Colonies: A View from the United States,” Globalizing Confederation: How Governments, Nations and Communities around the World Viewed the Emergence of Canada in 1867, September 29-30, 2016, York University.

“Chinese health care and drug patent linkage approvals: lessons fifteen years after joining the World Trade Organization, 6th World Forum on China Studies, Shanghai Academy of the Social Sciences, November 21-22, 2015 (invited and with Les Jacobs).

“The United States and Trade Remedies: What’s next?” Chaired and participated in Panel at the Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, D.C. (May 8, 2014) .

"International Trade Law and Domestic Public Policy." A paper delivered at the Institute for International Economic Law at Georgetown University Law Centre, Washington, DC, February 10, 2014 (invited).

“Canada, the United States and the WTO.” A paper delivered at the National Centre for Business Law, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, February 27, 2013 (invited).

“The WTO 'Court' and its Effect on Domestic Policy Matters.” A paper delivered at the Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, February 28, 2013 (invited).

“The Consequences of Legalization” was submitted for a Panel at the International Studies Association held in San Diego in March 2012. (Unable to deliver the paper in person.)

“The United States and Trade Remedies.” A paper presented at the European Centre of Excellence’s Workshop entitled Adversarial legalism à l’Européen, York University, Toronto, Ontario, April 2011.

“Washington, Ottawa and the WTO Agreement.” A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, May 2009.

“Social Justice, Law and the Narrative of Federalism.” A member of a panel addressing the extent to which norms of redistribution and protection of minority rights shape the goals and objectives of Canadian federalism at the Canada-Russia Federalism Workshop, University of Toronto, December, 2004.

“The Domestic Policy Impact of WTO Judicial Decision-Making.” A paper presented at the Canada-Russia Judicial Conference on Property Rights, University of Toronto, October 2004.

“The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism and Intellectual Property Rights, The Implications of Multilevel Governance on Domestic Policy in Canada and the United States.” A paper presented at the Toronto-Princeton North American Constitutionalism Conference, University of Toronto, October, 2004.

“The Study of Federalism in Canada.” A paper presented with co-author David Cameron at the Federalism & Democracy Conference, University of Manitoba, April, 2000.

“Imperial Politics and the Judicial Committee.” A paper presented at the 69th annual meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, St. John’s, Newfoundland, June, 1997.

Other

On-line and Media Outreach
Globe and Mail


World Trade Organization on-line:
Canada and the WTO: Multilevel Governance, Public Policy-Making and the WTO Auto Pact Case World Trade Organization

CBC
Test your knowledge of the constitution - take the quiz on the British North America Act, 1867.

Washington International Trade Association online:
How Much Does WTO Dispute Settlement Influence American Policy? America’s Trade Policy Blog, project of the Washington International Trade Association. April 2014.

Link to YFile story on February 20, 2014.

Approach To Teaching

Courses
Courses taught include:
The Politics of Law
Introduction to Canadian Government and Politics
International Law
Canadian Constitutionalism in Comparative Perspective
Advanced Public Policy Analysis
Law and Politics
Systems of Justice
Judicial Administration in Canada
Canadian Government and Politics (graduate course POLS 6110)
Canadian Public Law (graduate course SB PUBL 6200/POLS 6120/SLST 6150)
Canadian Constitutional and Administrative Law (graduate course MPPAL 6100)
Policy-making in Administrative Tribunals (graduate course LAW 6763)
Law, Politics and the Judiciary (graduate course POLS 6133/SLST 6085)

Graduate Supervisions

PhD Supervisions
Supervisor (1 in progress)
• Patrick Desjardins, PhD, Political Science, in progress.
Committee Member (1 in progress)
• Victoria Bikowski, PhD, Political Science, in progress.

MA Supervisions
Supervisor (47 completed, 1 in progress)
• Amirali Golpira, MA, Political Science, in progress.

• Alim Lila, MA, Political Science, 2017. A Battle for Legitimacy: The Struggle for Justice by the International Criminal Court.

• Taylor Collins, MA, Political Science, 2017. National Security and Individual Privacy Rights.

• Massoud Vahedi, MA, Political Science, 2017. The Looming Spector of Investor-State Dispute Settlement: To Fear or Not to Fear?

• Brandon Allison, MA, Political Science, 2017. Beyond Access to Justice.

• Krystian Galas, MA, Political Science, 2017. Failure of The Supreme Court of Canada and the Federal Government of Canada in Adequately Addressing Aboriginal Rights to Self-Government and Self Determination.

• Payal Patel, MA, Political Science, 2017. Neoliberalism's Impact on Canadian Policy: An Analysis of International Organizations and the Erosion of Democratic Decision-Making.

• Krian Sandhu, MA, Political Science, 2017. Inclusion? Disability, Rights and the Courts.

• Sabrina Alaimo, MA, Political Science, 2016. Aboriginal Peoples and the Supreme Court of Canada: Catalyst for Social Change?

• Vickash Balkaran, MA, Political Science, 2016. Multiculturalism 2.0.

• Brittany Cerqua, MA, Socio-Legal Studies, 2016. Canada's Newest Anti-Terrorism Laws.

• Sharon Chow, MA, Political Science, 2016. The Future of the International Criminal Court: The Importance of Change for Legitimacy and Effectiveness.

• Umar Khan, MA, Political Science, 2016. Disability, The Supreme Court of Canada, and Social Change.

• Andrew Huard, MA, Political Science, 2016. Judicial Review and the Supreme Court of Canada.

• Victoria Patel, MA, Political Science, 2016. Restructuring the Criminal Justice System.

• Matthew Austman, MA, Political Science, 2015. The Jurisprudence and Political Economy of Indigenous Incarceration in Canada.

• Laura Cardile, MA, Political Science, 2015. Looking Into the Abyss: Mental Illness and the Canadian Criminal Justice System.

• Tyler Moorehouse, MA, Political Science, 2015. Judicial Social Change and Gay Marriage.

• Mia Music, MA, Political Science, 2015. The State of Refugee Health: Public Policy and Human Rights Challenges Within the Interim Federal Health Program.

• Luckshi Sathasivam, MA, Political Science, 2015. Protecting the Rights and Safety of Sex Workers Through the Decriminalization of Canada's Prostitution Laws.

• Trina Vella, MA, Political Science, 2015. Canadian Democracy, Public Policy, and NAFTA: Thinking About the Relationship.

• Fiona Hack, MA, Political Science, 2014. The Supreme Court Appointment Process, A Journey Incomplete.

• Ryan Kelpin, MA, Political Science, 2014. Making Every Vote Count (Through Litigation)? Why Attempts to Reform the Electoral System at Large Through the Supreme Court of Canada Will Ultimately Fail.

• Sean Lewis, MA, Political Science, 2014. Without the Sword or the Purse: An Examination of American Judicial Efficacy in Matters of Social Change.

• Jovan Milosevic, MA, Socio-Legal Studies, 2014. Access to Justice in Ontario: Addressing the Need for Reform in the Era of Self-Litigation.

• Tania Eckstrom, MA, Political Science, 2013. Analyzing the Effects of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

• Melissa Gratta, MA, Political Science, 2013. Abortion in a Post-Morgentaler Era: Largely Inaccessible, Precariously Decriminalized and Monetarily Under-supported.

• Danielle Lobo, MA, Political Science, 2013. Criminal (In)justice in Canada: An Analysis of the New Sentencing Provisions in the Safe Streets and Communities Act (2012).

• Sharndeep Natt, MA, Political Science, 2013. Religious Freedoms in Canada: Do Charter Rights Enhance Religious Autonomy?

• Laura Booth, MA, Political Science, 2011. For the Protection of Offender Rights: The New Conservative Approach to Crime and the Subsequent Impact on Offenders.

• Nathalie Hamam, MA, Political Science, 2011. “Torture as Tort”: What Possibility for Canada?

• Kaitlin Ritchie, MA, Political Science, 2011. Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples and Canada’s Courts: A Recipe for Significant Social Reform?

• Jayme Turney, MA, Political Science, 2011. How Harper is Undermining Democracy in Canada.

• Tanya Zanette, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2011. The Negative Impact of Canadian Social Policy on Women.

• Giordana Pimentel, MA, Political Science, 2010. Section 15: Activist and Feminist Friend or Foe? A Critical Analysis of the Equality Provision and Its Effectiveness in Securing Women’s Rights.

• Ashley Therriault, MA, Political Science, 2010. Recognizing Positive Rights: Section 7 and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

• Nadya Tymochenko, LLM, 2010. Special Education Policy-Making.

• Patricia Pledge, LLM, 2009. Is Correctness “Correct”? Reconsidering the Appropriate Standard of Review for the Exercise of the Power to Make Delegated Legislation.

• Raj Sharma, LLM, 2009. Unwarranted Deference for Canadian Refugee Adjudication.

• Katherine Weaver, LLM, 2009. The Evolution of Administrative Law: Some Questions for Legal Aid Alberta to Consider.

• Anglelo Mele, MA, Political Science, 2009. Revisiting Meech Lake: Why it Failed and Its Implications for Canadian Federalism and National Unity.

• Keith Ramdial, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2008. Safer Roads for a Safer Ontario Act.

• Yulia Rzhenichev, MA, Political Science, 2008. Exclusionary Laws for the Sake of Protection: The Flaws of the Canadian Security Certificate System.

• Jennifer Silver, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2008. Equality Rights Under the Constitution.

• Peter Skrypka, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2008. Gun Control in Canada: The Problems of Implementing bill C-68

• Brian West, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2008. An Argument for the Development of Judicial Guidelines for the Adjudication of Charter Rights in Part I Proceedings

• Victoria Van Hemert, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2008. Do the Legal and Equality Rights in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Establish Positive Obligations on the Part of Governments to Provide “Medically Necessary” Health Care in Canada?

• Tracey Verhoeve, MA, Political Science, 2008. Democracy and GM Foods: Assessing policy debates on agricultural biotechnologies in Canada.

Committee Member (10 completed)
• Victoria Bikowski, Political Science, 2016. Oil and Gas & Indigenous Resistance.

• Adam Hustler, Political Science, 2016. Privileged Pluralism: Lobbying in Canada and its Conflicts of Interest.

• Selina Shaboian, Socio-Legal Studies, 2016. Techno-Legal Collision: How Technology is Transforming the Access to Justice Problem.

• Jessica Meyerovich, Political Science, 2016. The Politics of Poverty: Canadian Courts and Economic Rights.

• Carolyn Carter, Socio-Legal Studies, 2016. Stories of Mandatory Information Program Sessions Attendees: A Plea for "Meaningful Access to Justice."

• Diana Tsui, Socio-Legal Studies, 2016. Justice in Context: A Socio-Legal Analysis of Self-Represented Tenants' Experiences and Perceptions of Justice.

• Julie Forbes, MA, Political Science, 2009. Torture and the War on Terror.

• Stephany Mandin-Simons, MA, Socio-Legal Studies, 2009. Economic Rights, Regulation and Discrimination: Economic Status and the Quest for Human Dignity in Canadian, Neo-Liberal Society.

• Vera Nikolovski, MA, Political Science, 2008. A Hazardous Redefinition of Political Subjectivity and Governance: The Growing Centrality of the Voluntary Sector in Ontario.

• Jeannette Trac, MA, Political Science, 2007. The Feminization of Poverty under the SARA: The Gender Bias of Social Assistance, Market Income and Poverty.

Current Courses

TermCourse NumberSectionTitleType 
Fall 2017 AP/POLS1200 3.0  The Politics of Law LECT  
Fall 2017 AP/POLS4401 3.0  Systems of Justice SEMR  
Fall/Winter 2017-2018 AP/SOSC4362 6.0  Law and Society Honours Seminar: Law and Politics SEMR  

Upcoming Courses

TermCourse NumberSectionTitleType 
Winter 2018 AP/POLS1200 3.0  The Politics of Law LECT  


Jacqueline Krikorian is an associate professor and a member of the bar of Ontario. She received a PhD from the University of Toronto (Political Science), an MA from Dalhousie (Political Science) and her law degree from Queen's University. She also was awarded two years of funding from the British Council that she used to complete an MLitt research degree from the University of Oxford (Modern History). In the winter 2014 term, Professor Krikorian held the prestigious Fulbright Visiting Research Chair in US-Canada Relations at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and was appointed as a Visiting Fellow at the Institute for International Economic Law at Georgetown University Law Center.

Professor Krikorian teaches in the Department of Political Science and in the Law & Society program at York University. She specializes in government and public law, with a particular emphasis on Canada and US relations. She has been the recipient of funding from a number of institutions including the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Fulbright Canada, and the Commonwealth awards program.

Her research has been published on-line by the World Trade Organization and the Washington International Trade Association and in print by several leading academic publishers - the University of Toronto Press, the University of British Columbia Press, Cambridge University Press, and Les Presses de l'Université Laval. Her research also can be found in several noted scholarly journals, including the Canadian Journal of Political Science, the University of Toronto Law Journal and the Journal of International Economic Law.

She has recently co-edited Globalizing Confederation: Canada and the World in 1867 (2017) and Roads to Confederation, The Making of Canada, 1867, volumes 1 and 2 (2017) that was translated in French, Vers la Confédération, La construction du Canada, 1867, tomes 1 et 2. Her book, International Trade Law and Domestic Public Policy: Canada, the United States and the WTO (2012), adopts the methodological approaches traditionally used to study the effect of domestic high courts in order to analyze the policy impact of decisions issued by the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. It has received strong reviews, including:

"This book is an impressive work of scholarship, and sets a new standard in the scope of analysis appropriate in analyzing the implications of WTO case law. The particular strength of the author’s analysis is her detailed investigation of the political motivations and origins of challenged measures and even more so the meticulous investigation of the consequences of particular decisions and domestic policy responses thereto. Trade law scholars conventionally have settled for parsing the doctrinal rulings of the Appellate Body, with little regard for the impact of these rulings on the actual policy-making process in affected countries. For her, the latter is a central focus of her analysis - in effect the impact of law or legal rulings ‘on the ground’, so to speak. In the light of the ambitions (largely realized) by the author in this book, trade law scholars in future are unlikely to be able to settle simply for parsing passages in Appellate Body rulings."
-- Michael J. Trebilcock, University of Toronto, from World Trade Review, 2013

"Krikorian has engaged in original scholarship to produce an insightful analysis of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism and its limited policy impact on Canada and the United States. She presents a detailed examination of all of the relevant WTO complaints against Canada and the United States that illuminates the interplay between the WTO law in question and the surrounding domestic policy concerns. Applying the law and politics literature to the WTO dispute resolution mechanism, she succeeds in achieving real interdisciplinary work that crosses the international law and political science divide and brings the two fields closer together."
-- Linda C. Reif, CN Professor of International Trade, Faculty of Law, University of Alberta, from The Canadian Yearbook of International Law, 2012

"The WTO dispute settlement mechanism is widely regarded as the most significant aspect of a very important attempt at international regime building. This book provides a new objective dimension in the analysis and understanding of this mechanism … It makes a significant original contribution across several academic subfields, including international trade law, international political economy, international law, and domestic legal theory."
-- Gilbert R. Winham, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science and Adjunct Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, Dalhousie University, 2012

“This book provides an original framework for analysis of the effects of the WTO’s binding dispute settlement on national policy making. It greatly adds to scholarly debate both in the field of WTO issues and, more generally, the interaction of supranational decisions on national policy making.”
-- Christopher Parlin is Principal, Parlin & Associates, and an Adjunct Professor of Law at Georgetown University, 2012


Professor Krikorian has supervised over 45 MA students in law, socio-legal studies and political science and also participates in PhD dissertation committees. She has worked with graduate students in a range of areas including, constitutional and administrative law and policy; international law and international legal regimes; multilevel governance, federalism and intergovernmental relations; courts, judicial politics, and judicial administration; women and the law; legal history; and comparative legal systems.

As a student, she participated in a number of experiential learning programs that complemented her academic research. In Cape Town, South Africa, she undertook constitutional policy research and assisted in civil rights cases as an intern with the Legal Resources Centre. In Portland, Oregon, she worked as an intern in Ron Wyden’s constituency office when he was a member of the House of Representatives. And in Ottawa, Ontario she worked for both government and opposition members as a Parliamentary Intern.

Professor Krikorian can be reached via email at jdk@yorku.ca.

Degrees

PhD, University of Toronto (Political Science)
LLB, Queen's University (Faculty of Law)
MLitt, University of Oxford (Modern History)
MA, Dalhousie University (Political Science)
BA, Honours, Brock University (Politics/History)

Research Interests:

Politics and Government , Law , Government

Current Research Projects

Constitution-Making and the Emergence of the British North America Act, 1867

Summary: 
Although there is a considerable body of scholarship that focuses on Canadian Confederation, there is relatively little research on the making of the BNA Act, 1867. This project remedies this gap in the literature by undertaking the first comprehensive analysis of the emergence of the BNA Act, 1867. More specifically, it draws upon historical institutionalism to help explain the nature, origins and processes that led to its adoption. This study considers not only the architects' interests and goals in drafting Canada's first constitution, but it also assesses the institutional influences and constraints affecting its development in the decades prior to its adoption.

All Publications

Books

Single Authored (Refereed)

International Trade Law and Domestic Policy: Canada, the United States and the World Trade Organization. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2012.

Edited Collections (Refereed)

Roads to Confederation, The Making of Canada, 1867, volumes 1 and 2. Edited by Jacqueline D. Krikorian, David R. Cameron, Marcel Martel, Andrew W. McDougall and Robert C. Vipond. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017. Translated in French: Jacqueline D. Krikorian, David R. Cameron, Marcel Martel, Andrew W. McDougall et Robert C. Vipond, (dir.), Vers la Confédération, La construction du Canada, 1867, tomes 1 et 2. Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 2017.

Globalizing Confederation: Canada and the World in 1867. Edited by Jacqueline D. Krikorian, Marcel Martel, and Adrian Schubert. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017.

Journal Articles

Articles and Chapters (Refereed)

“Introduction, The Study of Confederation,” co-authored with David R. Cameron, Marcel Martel, Andrew W. McDougall and Robert C. Vipond, pp. 3-54, in Jacqueline D. Krikorian, David R. Cameron, Marcel Martel, Andrew W. McDougall and Robert C. Vipond, eds. Roads to Confederation, The Making of Canada, 1867, volume 1. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017. Translated in French, «Introduction: l’étude de la Confédération», 3-55, dans Jacqueline D. Krikorian, David R. Cameron, Marcel Martel, Andrew W. McDougall et Robert C. Vipond, (dir.), Vers la Confédération, La construction du Canada, 1867, tomes 1 et 2. Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 2017.

“Introduction, Canada and the World in 1867,” co-authored with Marcel Martel, and Adrian Schubert pp. 3-23, in Jacqueline D. Krikorian, Marcel Martel, and Adrian Schubert, eds., Globalizing Confederation: Canada and the World in 1867. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017.

“The 1867 Union of the British North American Colonies: A View From the United States,” co-authored with David R. Cameron. In Jacqueline D. Krikorian, Marcel Martel, and Adrian Schubert, eds., Globalizing Confederation: Canada and the World in 1867. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017.

“Recognizing Quebec in the Constitution of Canada: Using the Bilateral Constitutional Amendment Process.” University of Toronto Law Journal, volume 58, no. 4 (Fall 2008), 389-420. Co-authored with David R. Cameron. link

“Planes, Trains and Automobiles, The Impact of the WTO ‘Court’ on Canada in its First Ten Years.” Journal of International Economic Law, volume 8, no. 4 (2005), 921-975. link

“The Study of Federalism 1960-1999, A Content Review of Leading Canadian Academic Journals.” Canadian Public Administration, volume 45, no. 3 (2002), 328-363. Co-authored with David R. Cameron. link

“Canada, Criminal Appeals, and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the 1880s.” Review of Constitutional Studies, volume 6, no. 1 (2001), 44-78. link

“Imperial Politics and Canadian Judicial Independence.” Canadian Journal of Political Science, volume 33, no. 2 (2000), 291-332. link

A Different Form of Apartheid? The Legal Status of Married Women in South Africa.” Queen's Law Journal, volume 21, no. 1 (1995), 221-260. Reprinted in part, in Larry May, Nancy E. Snow and Angela Bolte, eds. Legal Philosophy: Multiple Perspectives. California: Mayfield, 2000 (585-592). link


Non-Refereed Articles

“Revisiting the 1865 Canadian debates on Confederation: Rights and the Constitution,” Canada Watch, Special Issue Reconsidering the Debates Over Canadian Confederation (Robarts Centre, Spring 1916), 13-15. Co-authored with David Cameron and Robert Vipond. link

“A New Approach to the Quebec Question,” Policy Options (October, 2009), 73-75. Co-authored with David R. Cameron. link

“Multi-Level Governance and Public Policy-Making in Canada: The WTO, Domestic Stakeholders, and the Auto Pact Case,” 134-149, in Peter Gallagher, Patrick Low and Andrew L. Stoler, eds. Managing the Challenges of WTO Participation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Available online: www.wto.org. link


Public Lectures

Selected Conference Presentations and Invited Talks

“Conflicts and Agreements: Canada’s Foundations and Their Consequences, 1865-1949.” Invited to participate on a panel sponsored by The Confederation Debates, March 31, 2017, University of Waterloo.

“The 1867 Union of the British North American Colonies: A View from the United States,” Globalizing Confederation: How Governments, Nations and Communities around the World Viewed the Emergence of Canada in 1867, September 29-30, 2016, York University.

“Chinese health care and drug patent linkage approvals: lessons fifteen years after joining the World Trade Organization, 6th World Forum on China Studies, Shanghai Academy of the Social Sciences, November 21-22, 2015 (invited and with Les Jacobs).

“The United States and Trade Remedies: What’s next?” Chaired and participated in Panel at the Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, D.C. (May 8, 2014) .

"International Trade Law and Domestic Public Policy." A paper delivered at the Institute for International Economic Law at Georgetown University Law Centre, Washington, DC, February 10, 2014 (invited).

“Canada, the United States and the WTO.” A paper delivered at the National Centre for Business Law, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, February 27, 2013 (invited).

“The WTO 'Court' and its Effect on Domestic Policy Matters.” A paper delivered at the Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, February 28, 2013 (invited).

“The Consequences of Legalization” was submitted for a Panel at the International Studies Association held in San Diego in March 2012. (Unable to deliver the paper in person.)

“The United States and Trade Remedies.” A paper presented at the European Centre of Excellence’s Workshop entitled Adversarial legalism à l’Européen, York University, Toronto, Ontario, April 2011.

“Washington, Ottawa and the WTO Agreement.” A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, May 2009.

“Social Justice, Law and the Narrative of Federalism.” A member of a panel addressing the extent to which norms of redistribution and protection of minority rights shape the goals and objectives of Canadian federalism at the Canada-Russia Federalism Workshop, University of Toronto, December, 2004.

“The Domestic Policy Impact of WTO Judicial Decision-Making.” A paper presented at the Canada-Russia Judicial Conference on Property Rights, University of Toronto, October 2004.

“The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism and Intellectual Property Rights, The Implications of Multilevel Governance on Domestic Policy in Canada and the United States.” A paper presented at the Toronto-Princeton North American Constitutionalism Conference, University of Toronto, October, 2004.

“The Study of Federalism in Canada.” A paper presented with co-author David Cameron at the Federalism & Democracy Conference, University of Manitoba, April, 2000.

“Imperial Politics and the Judicial Committee.” A paper presented at the 69th annual meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, St. John’s, Newfoundland, June, 1997.

Other

On-line and Media Outreach
Globe and Mail


World Trade Organization on-line:
Canada and the WTO: Multilevel Governance, Public Policy-Making and the WTO Auto Pact Case World Trade Organization

CBC
Test your knowledge of the constitution - take the quiz on the British North America Act, 1867.

Washington International Trade Association online:
How Much Does WTO Dispute Settlement Influence American Policy? America’s Trade Policy Blog, project of the Washington International Trade Association. April 2014.

Link to YFile story on February 20, 2014.


Teaching:

Approach To Teaching
Courses
Courses taught include:
The Politics of Law
Introduction to Canadian Government and Politics
International Law
Canadian Constitutionalism in Comparative Perspective
Advanced Public Policy Analysis
Law and Politics
Systems of Justice
Judicial Administration in Canada
Canadian Government and Politics (graduate course POLS 6110)
Canadian Public Law (graduate course SB PUBL 6200/POLS 6120/SLST 6150)
Canadian Constitutional and Administrative Law (graduate course MPPAL 6100)
Policy-making in Administrative Tribunals (graduate course LAW 6763)
Law, Politics and the Judiciary (graduate course POLS 6133/SLST 6085)

Graduate Supervisions

PhD Supervisions
Supervisor (1 in progress)
• Patrick Desjardins, PhD, Political Science, in progress.
Committee Member (1 in progress)
• Victoria Bikowski, PhD, Political Science, in progress.

MA Supervisions
Supervisor (47 completed, 1 in progress)
• Amirali Golpira, MA, Political Science, in progress.

• Alim Lila, MA, Political Science, 2017. A Battle for Legitimacy: The Struggle for Justice by the International Criminal Court.

• Taylor Collins, MA, Political Science, 2017. National Security and Individual Privacy Rights.

• Massoud Vahedi, MA, Political Science, 2017. The Looming Spector of Investor-State Dispute Settlement: To Fear or Not to Fear?

• Brandon Allison, MA, Political Science, 2017. Beyond Access to Justice.

• Krystian Galas, MA, Political Science, 2017. Failure of The Supreme Court of Canada and the Federal Government of Canada in Adequately Addressing Aboriginal Rights to Self-Government and Self Determination.

• Payal Patel, MA, Political Science, 2017. Neoliberalism's Impact on Canadian Policy: An Analysis of International Organizations and the Erosion of Democratic Decision-Making.

• Krian Sandhu, MA, Political Science, 2017. Inclusion? Disability, Rights and the Courts.

• Sabrina Alaimo, MA, Political Science, 2016. Aboriginal Peoples and the Supreme Court of Canada: Catalyst for Social Change?

• Vickash Balkaran, MA, Political Science, 2016. Multiculturalism 2.0.

• Brittany Cerqua, MA, Socio-Legal Studies, 2016. Canada's Newest Anti-Terrorism Laws.

• Sharon Chow, MA, Political Science, 2016. The Future of the International Criminal Court: The Importance of Change for Legitimacy and Effectiveness.

• Umar Khan, MA, Political Science, 2016. Disability, The Supreme Court of Canada, and Social Change.

• Andrew Huard, MA, Political Science, 2016. Judicial Review and the Supreme Court of Canada.

• Victoria Patel, MA, Political Science, 2016. Restructuring the Criminal Justice System.

• Matthew Austman, MA, Political Science, 2015. The Jurisprudence and Political Economy of Indigenous Incarceration in Canada.

• Laura Cardile, MA, Political Science, 2015. Looking Into the Abyss: Mental Illness and the Canadian Criminal Justice System.

• Tyler Moorehouse, MA, Political Science, 2015. Judicial Social Change and Gay Marriage.

• Mia Music, MA, Political Science, 2015. The State of Refugee Health: Public Policy and Human Rights Challenges Within the Interim Federal Health Program.

• Luckshi Sathasivam, MA, Political Science, 2015. Protecting the Rights and Safety of Sex Workers Through the Decriminalization of Canada's Prostitution Laws.

• Trina Vella, MA, Political Science, 2015. Canadian Democracy, Public Policy, and NAFTA: Thinking About the Relationship.

• Fiona Hack, MA, Political Science, 2014. The Supreme Court Appointment Process, A Journey Incomplete.

• Ryan Kelpin, MA, Political Science, 2014. Making Every Vote Count (Through Litigation)? Why Attempts to Reform the Electoral System at Large Through the Supreme Court of Canada Will Ultimately Fail.

• Sean Lewis, MA, Political Science, 2014. Without the Sword or the Purse: An Examination of American Judicial Efficacy in Matters of Social Change.

• Jovan Milosevic, MA, Socio-Legal Studies, 2014. Access to Justice in Ontario: Addressing the Need for Reform in the Era of Self-Litigation.

• Tania Eckstrom, MA, Political Science, 2013. Analyzing the Effects of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

• Melissa Gratta, MA, Political Science, 2013. Abortion in a Post-Morgentaler Era: Largely Inaccessible, Precariously Decriminalized and Monetarily Under-supported.

• Danielle Lobo, MA, Political Science, 2013. Criminal (In)justice in Canada: An Analysis of the New Sentencing Provisions in the Safe Streets and Communities Act (2012).

• Sharndeep Natt, MA, Political Science, 2013. Religious Freedoms in Canada: Do Charter Rights Enhance Religious Autonomy?

• Laura Booth, MA, Political Science, 2011. For the Protection of Offender Rights: The New Conservative Approach to Crime and the Subsequent Impact on Offenders.

• Nathalie Hamam, MA, Political Science, 2011. “Torture as Tort”: What Possibility for Canada?

• Kaitlin Ritchie, MA, Political Science, 2011. Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples and Canada’s Courts: A Recipe for Significant Social Reform?

• Jayme Turney, MA, Political Science, 2011. How Harper is Undermining Democracy in Canada.

• Tanya Zanette, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2011. The Negative Impact of Canadian Social Policy on Women.

• Giordana Pimentel, MA, Political Science, 2010. Section 15: Activist and Feminist Friend or Foe? A Critical Analysis of the Equality Provision and Its Effectiveness in Securing Women’s Rights.

• Ashley Therriault, MA, Political Science, 2010. Recognizing Positive Rights: Section 7 and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

• Nadya Tymochenko, LLM, 2010. Special Education Policy-Making.

• Patricia Pledge, LLM, 2009. Is Correctness “Correct”? Reconsidering the Appropriate Standard of Review for the Exercise of the Power to Make Delegated Legislation.

• Raj Sharma, LLM, 2009. Unwarranted Deference for Canadian Refugee Adjudication.

• Katherine Weaver, LLM, 2009. The Evolution of Administrative Law: Some Questions for Legal Aid Alberta to Consider.

• Anglelo Mele, MA, Political Science, 2009. Revisiting Meech Lake: Why it Failed and Its Implications for Canadian Federalism and National Unity.

• Keith Ramdial, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2008. Safer Roads for a Safer Ontario Act.

• Yulia Rzhenichev, MA, Political Science, 2008. Exclusionary Laws for the Sake of Protection: The Flaws of the Canadian Security Certificate System.

• Jennifer Silver, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2008. Equality Rights Under the Constitution.

• Peter Skrypka, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2008. Gun Control in Canada: The Problems of Implementing bill C-68

• Brian West, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2008. An Argument for the Development of Judicial Guidelines for the Adjudication of Charter Rights in Part I Proceedings

• Victoria Van Hemert, MPPAL, Public Policy and Administration, 2008. Do the Legal and Equality Rights in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Establish Positive Obligations on the Part of Governments to Provide “Medically Necessary” Health Care in Canada?

• Tracey Verhoeve, MA, Political Science, 2008. Democracy and GM Foods: Assessing policy debates on agricultural biotechnologies in Canada.

Committee Member (10 completed)
• Victoria Bikowski, Political Science, 2016. Oil and Gas & Indigenous Resistance.

• Adam Hustler, Political Science, 2016. Privileged Pluralism: Lobbying in Canada and its Conflicts of Interest.

• Selina Shaboian, Socio-Legal Studies, 2016. Techno-Legal Collision: How Technology is Transforming the Access to Justice Problem.

• Jessica Meyerovich, Political Science, 2016. The Politics of Poverty: Canadian Courts and Economic Rights.

• Carolyn Carter, Socio-Legal Studies, 2016. Stories of Mandatory Information Program Sessions Attendees: A Plea for "Meaningful Access to Justice."

• Diana Tsui, Socio-Legal Studies, 2016. Justice in Context: A Socio-Legal Analysis of Self-Represented Tenants' Experiences and Perceptions of Justice.

• Julie Forbes, MA, Political Science, 2009. Torture and the War on Terror.

• Stephany Mandin-Simons, MA, Socio-Legal Studies, 2009. Economic Rights, Regulation and Discrimination: Economic Status and the Quest for Human Dignity in Canadian, Neo-Liberal Society.

• Vera Nikolovski, MA, Political Science, 2008. A Hazardous Redefinition of Political Subjectivity and Governance: The Growing Centrality of the Voluntary Sector in Ontario.

• Jeannette Trac, MA, Political Science, 2007. The Feminization of Poverty under the SARA: The Gender Bias of Social Assistance, Market Income and Poverty.


Current Courses

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TermCourse NumberSectionTitleType 
Fall 2017 AP/POLS1200 3.0  The Politics of Law LECT  
Fall 2017 AP/POLS4401 3.0  Systems of Justice SEMR  
Fall/Winter 2017-2018 AP/SOSC4362 6.0  Law and Society Honours Seminar: Law and Politics SEMR  

Upcoming Courses

TermCourse NumberSectionTitleType 
Winter 2018 AP/POLS1200 3.0  The Politics of Law LECT