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Pat Armstrong

Department of Sociology

Professor
Distinguished Research Professor of Sociology
 
Office: 2118 Vari Hall
Phone: (416)736-2100 Ext: 22550
Emailpatarmst@yorku.ca
 
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Pat Armstrong held a Canada Health Services Research Foundation/Canadian Institute of Health Research Chair in Health Services, is a Distinguished Research Professor in Sociology and Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. Focusing on the fields of social policy, of women, work and the health and social services, she has published widely, co-authoring and co-editing such books as Troubliing Care:Critical Perspectives on Research and Practices; Shaping Academe for the Public Good; Thinking Women and Health Care Reform in Canada: Women’s health: Intersections of Research, Policy and Practice;They Deserve Better: the Long-term Care Experience in Canada and Scandinavia; A Place to Call Home: Long-term Care in Canada; Critical to Care: the Invisible Women in Health Services and Wasting Away; The Undermining of Canadian Health Care. .Much of this work makes the relationship between paid and unpaid work central to the analysis. She was Chair of Women and Health Care Reform, a group funded for more than a decade by Health Canada, and was acting director of the National Network for Environments and Women’s Health. She is currently co-director at York of the Ontario Training Centre, a member of the Board for the York Institute for Health Research and has served as both Chair of the Department of Sociology at York and Director of the School of Canadian Studies at Carleton. She is also a board member of the Canadian Health Coalition and the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. In addition, she has served as an expert witness in more than a dozen cases, heard before bodies ranging from the Federal Court to federal Human Rights Tribunals on issues related to women’s health care work and to pay equity. She has been a co-investigator and principal investigator on a large number of grants, primarily focused on women’s work, women’s health and health care. Funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada, she is Pincipal Investigator on "Reimagining Long-term Residential Care: An International Study of Promising Practices" and on the CIHR funded "Healthy Aging in Residential Places"

   Area of Specialization

health care and health policy; women and work; feminist political economy



Degrees

Ph.D., Sociology, Carleton University
M.A., Canadian Studies, Carleton University
B.A., Sociology, University of Toronto

Appointments

Faculty of Health


Research Interests

Health , Women's Studies

All Publications

Books

Wasting Away: The Undermining of Canadian Health Care (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Wynford Project Edition, with new Introduction. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2010, xii + 271 pp.

The Double Ghetto: Canadian Women and Their Segregated Work (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Wynford Project Edition, with new Preface. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2010, 7 + 259 pp.

A Place to Call Home: Long Term Care in Canada (Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Barbara Clow, Karen Grant, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Beth Jackson, Ann Pederson, Morgan Seeley, Jane Springer, eds.), Toronto: Fernwood Publishing, 2009, 127 pp.

They Deserve Better: The long-term care experience in Canada and Scandinavia (Pat Armstrong, Albert Banerjee, Marta Szebehely, Hugh Armstrong, Tamara Daly and Stirling Lafrance ) Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2009, 155 pp.

Women’s Health: Intersections of Policy, Research and Practice (Pat Armstrong and Jennifer Deadman eds.), Toronto: Women’s Press, 2008, xi + 290 pp.

Critical to Care; The Invisible Women in Health Services (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and Krista Scott-Dixon), Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008, xii + 228 pp.

About Canada: Health Care (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 2008, 157 pp.

Caring For/Caring About. Women, Home Care and Unpaid Caregiving (Karen R. Grant, Carol Amaratunga, Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Ann Pederson and Kay Willson eds.), Aurora: Garamond Press, 2004, 200 pp.

Studies in Political Economy: Developments in Feminism (Caroline Andrew, Hugh Armstrong, Pat Armstrong, Wallace Clement and Leah Vosko eds.). Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press, 2003, vi + 362 pp.

Wasting Away: The Undermining of Canadian Health Care (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Revised Second Edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2002, viii + 272 pp.

Exposing Privatization: Women and Health Care Reform (Pat Armstrong, Carol Amaratunga, Jocelyne Bernier, Karen Grant, Ann Pederson and Kay Willson eds.). Aurora: Garamond Press, 2002, 308 pp.

Unhealthy Times: Political Economy Perspectives on Health and Care in Canada (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and David Coburn eds.). Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2001, x + 254 pp.

“Heal Thyself”: Managing Health Care Reform (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Ivy Bourgeault, Jacqueline Choiniere, Eric Mykhalovskiy and Jerry White). Toronto: Garamond Press, 2000, 171 pp.

World Class Cities: Can Canada Play? (Caroline Andrew, Pat Armstrong, and André Lapierre eds.) . Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1999, 454 pp.

Feminism, Political Economy and the State: Contested Terrain (Pat Armstrong and M. Patricia Connelly eds.). Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press, 1999, 373 pp.

Universal Health Care. What the United States Can Learn From the Canadian Experience (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and Claudia Fegan). New York: The New Press, 1998, xv + 176 pp.

Medical Alert: New Work Organizations in Health Care (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Jacqueline Choiniere, Eric Mykhalovskiy and Jerry White), Toronto: Garamond Press, 1997, x + 158 pp.

Wasting Away: The Undermining of Canadian Health Care (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1996, viii + 245 pp.

Take Care: Warning Signals for Canadian Health Care (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Jacqueline Choiniere, Gina Feldberg and Jerry White eds.), Toronto: Garamond Press, 1994, 127 pp.

The Double Ghetto: Canadian Women and Their Segregated Work (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Revised Third Edition. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1994, 259 pp.

Vital Signs: Nursing Work in Transition (Pat Armstrong, Jacqueline Choiniere and Elaine Day), Toronto: Garamond Press, 1993, 125 pp.

Feminism in Action: Studies in Political Economy (Pat Armstrong, M. Patricia Connelly eds.), Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press, 1992, 342 pp.

Theorizing Women's Work (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Toronto: Garamond Press, 1990, 161 pp.

The Double Ghetto: Canadian Women and Their Segregated Work (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1978, 199 pp.

Labour Pains: Women's Work in Crisis (Pat Armstrong), Toronto: The Women's Press, 1984, 273 pp.

The Double Ghetto: Canadian Women and Their Segregated Work (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Revised Second Edition. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1984, 223 pp.

A Working Majority: What Women Must Do for Pay (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada for the Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women, 1983, 280 pp. Translated as Une Majorité Laborieuse: Les femmes qui gagnent leur vie, mais a quel prix. Ottawa: Approvisionnements et Services Canada pour le Conseil Consultatif Canadien de la Situation de la Femme, 1983, 329 pp.

Book Chapters

“Pay Equity: Yesterday’s Issue” (Pat Armstrong), in Lorne Tepperman and Angela Kalyta, eds., Reading Sociology: Canadian Perspectives. Second Edition., forthcoming 2010.

“Five Minutes with the Health Minister: What Women Want in Health Care” (Karen Grant, Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Barbara Clow, Nancy Guberman, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Beth Jackson, Ann Pederson, Morgan Seeley and Kay Wilson), pp. 147-58 in Nili Kaplan-Myrth, Lori Hanson and Patricia Thille, eds., Women Who Care: Women’s Stories of Health Care and Caring. East Lawrenstown NS: Pottersfield Press, 2010

“Pay Equity in Canada, The Story Continues” (Pat Armstrong and Kristan Scott Dixon) in Gillian Whitehouse, ed., Equal Pay for Women? Trends and Perspectives in Cross-National Perspective. New York: Routledge Press, forthcoming 2010

“Gender, Health and Care” (Pat Armstrong) in Dennis Raphael and Tulsa Bryant, eds. Staying Alive. Critical Perspectives on Health, Illness and Care. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, forthcoming 2010

“Women Forced to Work Longer, Harder, for Less Pay” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 7-14 in Trish Hennessy and Ed Finn, eds., Speaking Truth to Power: A Reader on Canadian Women’s Inequality. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2010

“Neoliberalism in Action: Canadian Perspectives” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 184-201 in Susan Braedley and Meg Luxton, eds., Neoliberalism and Everyday Life. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010

“Women’s Health Centres” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 371-86 in Ellen Kuhlmann and Ellen Annandale, eds., The Palgrave Handbook of Gender and Healthcare. Basingstoke UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010

“Gendering Work? Women and Technologies in Health Care” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and Karen Messing), pp. 122-37 in Ellen Balka, Eileen Green and Flis Henwood, eds., Gender, Health and Information Technology in Context. Basingstoke UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009

“Contradictions at Work: Struggles for Control in Canadian Health Care” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 145-67 in Leo Panitch and Colin Leys, eds., Morbid Symptoms: Health under Capitalism. Socialist Register 2010. Pontypool Wales: Merlin Press and New York: Monthly Review Press, 2009

“Precarious Employment in the Health-Care Sector” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 256-70 in Leah F. Vosko, Martha MacDonald, Iain Campbell, eds., Gender and the Contours of Precarious Employment. New York: Routledge Press, 2009.

“Foreword” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 7-8 in Celia Briar, ed., Hidden Health Hazards in Women’s Work. Wellington NZ: Dunmore Publishing, 2009.

“Taking Power: Making Change Nurses’ Unions in Canada” (Pat Armstrong and Linda Silas), pp. 316-36 in Marjorie McIntyre and Carol McDonald, eds., Realities of Canadian Nursing: Professional, Practice, and Power Issues. Third Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2009

“Challenging Questions: Designing Long-Term Facility Care with Women in Mind” (Pat Armstrong and Albert Banerjee), pp. 110-18 in Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Barbara Clow, Karen Grant, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Beth Jackson, Ann Pederson, Morgan Seeley and Jane Springer, eds. A Place to Call Home: Long Term Care in Canada, Toronto: Fernwood Publishing, 2009

“Public Policy, Gender, and Health” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 350-61 in Dennis Raphael, ed., Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives. Second Edition. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2009

“Managing Care the Canadian Way” (Pat Armstrong), pp. in Johanna Fisher, ed., Biomedical Ethics: A Canadian Focus. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2009.

“Social Cohesion and the State: The Health Care Example” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 87-106 in Alexandra Dobrowolsky, ed., Women and Public Policy in Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2009

“Gender Relations” (Pat Armstrong), pp. in Lorne Tepperman and Patrizia Albanese, eds., Sociology: A Canadian Perspective. Revised Third Edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2008

“Doing Women’s Studies” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 250-55 in Wendy Robbins, Meg Luxton, Margrit Eichler, and Francine Descarries, eds., Minds of Our Own: Inventing Feminist Scholarship and Women’s Studies in Canada and Quebec, 1966–76. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier Press, 2008

“Las mujeres, el trabajo y el cuidado de los demás en el actual milenio” (“Thinking it Through: Women, Work and Caring in the New Millenium”) (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 195-204 in María Luisa Clark, ed. La mediciόn de las aportaciones de las mujeres a la salud y al desarrollo en las Américas: encuestas sobre el empleo del tiempo y cuentas satélite del sector familiar Measuring Women’s Contributions to Health and Development in the Americas: Household Satellite Accounts and Time-Use Surveys, 2008

“Women and Health Care Reform” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 257-61 in Bruce Campbell and Greg Marchildon, eds., Medicare: Facts, Myths, Problems and Promises Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2007

“Health Care Reform and Its Impact on Women” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 333-55 in Les Samuelson and Wayne Antony, eds., Power and Resistance: Critical Thinking about Canadian Social Issues. Fourth Edition. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 2007

“Doubtful Data: Why Paradigms Matter in Counting the Health-Care Labor Force” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and Kate Laxer), pp. 326-48 in Vivian Shalla and Wallace Clement, eds. Work in Tumultuous Times: Critical Perspectives. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2007

“Relocating Care: Home Care in Ontario”, (Pat Armstrong), pp. 528-53 in Marina Morrow, Olena Hankivsky and Colleen Varcoe, eds. Women’s Health in Canada: Critical Perspective on Theory and Policy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007

“Gender, Health and Care” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 287-304 in Dennis Raphael, Toba Bryant and Marcia Rioux, eds. Staying Alive: Critical Perspectives on Health, Illness, and Health Care. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2006

“Precarious Work, Privatization, and the Health-Care Industry: The Case of Ancillary Workers” (Pat Armstrong and Kate Laxer), pp. 115-38 in Leah Vosko, ed., Precarious Employment: Understanding Labour Market Insecurity in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2006

“Health, Social Policy, Social Economics, and the Voluntary Sector” (Pat Armstrong), pp.331-44 in Dennis Raphael, ed., Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2004

"Gender Relations" (Pat Armstrong), pp. 380-401 in Lorne Tepperman and James Curtis, eds., Sociology: A Canadian Perspective. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2004

“Planning for Care: Approaches to Human Resources Policy and Planning in Health Care” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 117-49 in Pierre Gerlier Forest, Gregory P. Marchildon and Tom McIntosh, eds., Changing Health Care in Canada. Romanow Papers, Volume 2. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004. Translated as “Planification des soins: approches en matière de politiques et de planification des ressources humaines de la santé”, pp. 125-63 in Pierre-Gerlier Forest, Gregory P. Marchildon and Tom McIntosh, eds., Les forces de changement dans le système de santé canadien. Ottawa: Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa, 2004

“Caregiving in Historical Perspective” (Pat Armstrong and Olga Kits), pp. 23-63 in Paul Leduc Browne, ed., The Commodity of Care: Assessing Ontario’s Experiment with Managed Competition in Home Care. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2004

“Assessing the Impact of Restructuring and Work Reorganization in Long Term Care” (Pat Armstrong, Irene Jansen, Erin Connell and Mavis Jones), pp. 175-217 in Penny Van Esterik, ed. Head, Heart and Hands: Partnerships for Women’s Health in Canadian Environments. Volume 1. Toronto: National Network on Environments and Women’s Health, 2003

“Privatization as Health-Care Reform and Its Impact on Women” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 315-36 in Wayne Antony, ed., Power and Resistance. Third Edition. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 2003

“Pay Equity: Complexities and Contradictions in Legal and Social Processes” (Pat Armstrong, Mary Cornish and Elizabeth Millar), pp. 161-82 in Wallace Clement and Leah Vosko, eds., Changing Canada: Political Economy as Transformation. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003

“Feminist Methodology” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 11-24 in Merle Jacobs, ed., Is Anyone Listening? Women, Work and Society, Toronto: Women’s Press, 2002. Reprinted from Theorizing Women’s Work, 1990

“The Everyday Practices of Rationing: Comparing the Voices of Nurses in California and British Columbia”(I. Bourgeault, S. Lindsay, E. Mykhalovskiy, H. Armstrong, P. Armstrong, J. Choiniere, S. Lexchin, S. Peters, and J.P. White), pp. 83-103 in Donald Light and David Hughes, eds., Rationing: Constructed Realities and Professional Practices. Malden MA: Blackwell, 2002. Reprinted from Sociology of Health and Illness.

“The Context for Health Care Reform” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 11-48 in Pat Armstrong, et al, eds., Exposing Privatization: Women and Health Care Reform. Toronto: Garamond Press, 2001

“Women, Privatization and Health Care Reform: The Ontario Case” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 163-216 in Pat Armstrong, et al., eds. Exposing Privatization: Women and Health Care Reform. Toronto: Garamond Press, 2001

“Evidence-Based Health Care Reform: Women’s Issues” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 121-45 in Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and David Coburn, eds., Unhealthy Times. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2001

“Women and Health: Not Just a Matter of Care” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 260-78 in Nancy Mandell, ed., Feminist Issues: Race, Class and Sexuality. Revised Third Edition. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 2001

“Women and Health: Challenges and Changes”, (Pat Armstrong), pp. 249-66 in Nancy Mandell, ed. Feminist Issues: Race, Class and Sexuality. Revised Second Edition. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1998

“Restructuring Public and Private: Women's Paid and Unpaid Work” (Pat Armstrong), pp.37-61 in Susan B. Boyd, ed. Challenging the Public/Private Divide: Feminism, Law and Public Policy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997. Revised version pp. 37-61 in Barbara A. Crow and Lise Gotell, eds., Open Boundaries: A Canadian Women’s Studies Reader. Toronto: Prentice-Hall, 2000

“Pay Equity: Not Just a Matter of Money”(Pat Armstrong), pp. 246-65 in Patricia Evans and Gerda Werkerle, eds., Women and the Canadian Welfare State: Challenges and Changes. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997. Revised version pp. 122-37 in Caroline Andrew and Sandra Rogers, eds., Women and the Canadian State. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1997

“From Caring and Sharing to Greedy and Mean?” (Pat Armstrong), in André Lapierre, Patricia Smart and Pierre Savard, eds. Language, Culture and Values in Canada at the Dawn of the 21st Century. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1996. Revised version published as "The Welfare State as History", pp. 52-71 in Raymond Blake, Penny Bryden and J. Frank Strain, eds. The Welfare State in Canada. Concord: Irwin, 1997, pp. 251-268.

“The Feminization of the Labour Force: Harmonizing Down in A Global Economy” (Pat Armstrong) , pp. 368-392 in Karen Messing, Barbara Neis and Lucie Dumais, eds. Invisible: La Santé des Travailleuses. Charlottetown: Gynergy, 1995. Revised version pp. 29-54 in Isabella Bakker, ed., Rethinking Restructuring: Gender and Change in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996

“Unraveling the Safety Net: Transformations in Health Care and Their Impact on Women” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 129-50 in Janine Brodie, ed. Women and Canadian Public Policy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1995

“Women and Health: Challenges and Changes” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 294-314 in Nancy Mandell, ed. Feminist Issues: Race, Class and Sexuality. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1995

“Health Care as a Business: The Legacy of Free Trade” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 218-34 in Wayne Antony, ed., Power and Resistance. Second Edition. Halifax: Fernwood, 1998. Revised from Take Care: Warning Signals for the Canadian Health System, 1994.

“Gender Relations” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 345-77 in Jack Richardson, Lorne Tepperman and James Curtis, eds., The Social World. Revised Third Edition. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1994

“Professions, Unions or What? Learning from Nurses” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 304-24 in Linda Briskin and Patricia McDermott, eds., Women Challenging Unions: Feminism, Democracy, and Militancy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993

“Women as Victims, Women as Actors”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 299-310 in James Curtis, Edward Grabb and Neil Guppy, eds. Social Inequality in Canada. Second Edition. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1993. Reprinted from Theorizing Women's Work, 1990.

“Work and Family Life: Changing Patterns” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 127-45 in G.N. Ramu, ed., Marriage and the Family in Canada Today. Second Edition. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1993

“Women and Work: Learning From the Research Experience” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 135-46 in Joan Brockman and Dorothy E. Chunn, eds. Investigating Gender Bias in the Law: Socio-Legal Perspectives. Toronto: Thompson, 1993

“Better Irreverent than Irrelevant”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 339-48 in William Carroll et al., eds. Fragile Truths: 25 Years of Sociology and Anthropology in Canada. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1992

“Gender Relations” (Pat Armstrong), pp. in Jack Richardson and Lorne Tepperman, eds., The Social World. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1991

“Understanding the Numbers: Women in the Film and Television Industry” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 3-38 in Toronto Women in Film and Television, ed. Changing Focus: The Future of Women in the Canadian Film and Television Industry. Toronto: TWIF, 1991

“Women and the Double Ghetto” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 381-89 in James Curtis and Lorne Tepperman, eds. Images of Canada. Scarborough: Prentice Hall, 1990. Reprinted from The Double Ghetto, 1984.

“Economic Conditions and Family Structures” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 67-92 in Maureen Baker, ed., Families: Changing Trends in Canada. Second Edition. McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1990

“Choosing Equity and Prosperity: Access to College and the Ontario Economy”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 1-27 in Ontario Council of Regents, Colleges and the Changing Economy: Background Papers, Vision 2000. Toronto: Author, 1989

“Women's Work in the Labour Force” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 275-315 in Arlene Tiger McLaren, ed., Gender and Society: Creating a Canadian Women's Sociology. Toronto: Copp-Clark Pitman, 1988. Reprinted from The Double Ghetto, 1984.

“Unemployment as a Women's Issue” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 385-93 in Lorne Tepperman and James Curtis, eds., Readings in Sociology: An Introduction. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1988

“The Marital System: Australian and Canadian Patterns” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 179-206 in Bonnie Fox, ed. Family Bonds and Gender Division. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 1988

“Taking Women into Account: Redefining and Intensifying Employment in Canada” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 65-84 in Elizabeth Hagen, Jane Jenson and Trudi Koziol, eds., Feminization of the Labour Force: Paradoxes and Promises. Cambridge: Polity and New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

“Work and Family Life: Changing Patterns” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 121-42 in G. N. Ramu, ed., Marriage and the Family in Canada Today. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1988

“Women, Family and Economy”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 143-74 in Ann Duffy and Nancy Mandell, eds., The Canadian Family: Feminist Reflections. Scarborough: Butterworths, 1988

“Mediating the Conflicting Demands of 'Home' and 'Work'”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 113-41 in Karen Anderson et al., Family Matters. Toronto: Methuen, in association with TVOntario, 1987

“Women and the Economic Crisis in Canada”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 225-46 in Robert Argue, Charlene Gannage and David Livingstone, eds., Working People in Hard Times: Canadian Perspectives. Toronto: Garamond, 1987

“Women's Work: Women's Wages” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 354-76 in Greta Hofmann Nemiroff, ed., Women and Men: Interdisciplinary Readings on Gender. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1987

“Women, Technology and the Economic Crisis” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 43-96 in John F. Peters, ed., Work in Canada. Occasional Paper No. 4. Waterloo: Interdisciplinary Research Committee, Wilfred Laurier University, 1986

“Women” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 36-43 in Daniel Drache and Wallace Clement, eds., A Practical Guide to Canadian Political Economy. Revised Second Edition. Toronto: Lorimer, 1985

“The Structure of Women's Labour Force Work: Everywhere and Nowhere”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 130-36 in Graham S. Lowe and Harvey Krahn, eds., Working Canadians: A Reader in the Sociology of Work and Industry. Toronto: Methuen, 1984. Reprinted from A Working Majority, 1983

“Job Creation and Unemployment for Canadian Women”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 129-52 in Anne Hoiberg, ed., Women and the World of Work. New York: Plenum, 1982. Revised versions, pp. 209-55 in Naomi Hersom and Dorothy E. Smith, eds., Women and the Canadian Labour Force. Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada, 1982; and as Working Paper No. 9, Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, 1982

“Women and Unemployment” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 70-101 in R. Marvyn Novick, ed., Full Employment: Social Questions for Public Policy. Toronto: Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto, 1979

Journal Articles

“Qualitative research and the politics of knowledge in an age of evidence: Developing a research-based practice of immanent critique” (Eric Mykhalousky, Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Ivy Bourgeault, Jackie Choiniere, Joel Lexchin, Suzanne Peters and Jerry White), Social Science and Medicine 67 (2008): 195-203

“Bringing it Home: Women’s Health Work” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Women's Health and Urban Life: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal VII:2 (December 2008): 6-15

“Back to Basics: Pay Equity for Women Today” (Pat Armstrong), Labour and Industry 18:2 (December 2007): 11-32

“Indicators for All: Including Occupational Health” (Ellen Balka, Karen Messing and Pat Armstrong), Indicators for a Sustainable Health Care System: Policy and Practices in Health and Safety 4:1 (2006): 69-85

“Public and Private: Implications for Care Work” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Sociological Review 53.s2 (2005): 167-187. Reprinted in Lynne Pettinger Jane Parry, Rebecca Taylor and Miriam Glucksman, eds., A New Sociology of Work, Oxford: Blackwell, 2006

“Quality Care is Like a Carton of Eggs: Using a Gender-based Diversity Analysis to Assess Quality of Health Care” (Beth E. Jackson, Ann Pederson, Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Barbara Clow, Karen R. Grant, Nancy Guberman, and Kay Willson), Canadian Woman Studies 24 (2005): 15-22.

“At First You Will Not Succeed: Negotiating For Care in the Context of Health Reform” (I. L. Bourgeault, S. Lindsay, Eric Mykhalovskiy, H.Armstrong, P. Armstrong, J. Choiniere, J. Lexchin, S. Peters, and J, P. White), Research in the Sociology of Health Care 22 (2004): 263-278

“Thinking it Through. Women, Work and Caring in the New Millennium” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Canadian Woman Studies/les cahiers de la femme. 21/22:4/1 (Spring/Summer 2002): 44-50. Summary version of the original. Reprinted as pp. 145-53 in Barbara A. Crow and Lise Gotell, eds. Open Boundaries: A Canadian Women’s Studies Reader. Toronto: Prentice-Hall, 2004.

“Market Principles, Business Practices and Health Care: Comparing the U.S. and Canadian Experiences” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault, Jacqueline Choiniere, Joel Lexchin, Eric Mykhalovskiy, Suzanne Peters and Jerry P. White), International Journal of Canadian Studies 28 (Fall 2003): 13-38, issue on “Health and Well-being in Canada”

“Everyday Experiences of Implicit Rationing: Comparing the Voices of Nurses in California and British Columbia” (I. Bourgeault, H. Armstrong, P. Armstrong, J. Choiniere, J. Lexchin, E. Mykhalovskiy, S. Peters and J.P. White), Sociology of Health and Illness. 23.5 (2001): 633-653.

“The Impact of Managed Care on Nurses’ Learning and Teaching” (Jerry White, Hugh Armstrong, Pat Armstrong, Ivy Bourgeault, Jacqueline Choiniere and Eric Mykalovskiy), Nursing Inquiry 7 (2000): 74-80.

“Decentralized Health Care in Canada” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), British Medical Journal 318 (May 1999): 1201-04.

“Restructuring Pay Equity for a Restructured Work Force: Canadian Perspectives” (Pat Armstrong and Mary Cornish), Gender, Work and Organization 4:2 (April 1997): 67-86.

“Resurrecting the Family: Interring the State” (Pat Armstrong), Journal of Comparative Family Studies 27:2 (Summer 1996): 221-248.

“Caring and Women's Work” (Pat Armstrong), Health and Canadian Society, 2:1 (1996): 109-18.

“Lessons from Pay Equity” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Studies in Political Economy 32 (Spring 1990): 29-54. Reprinted as pp. 286-314 in M. Patricia Connelly and Pat Armstrong, eds., Feminism in Action. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press, 1992

“Sex and the Professions in Canada” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Journal of Canadian Studies 27:1 (1989): 118-35

“Is There Still A Chairman of the Board?” (Pat Armstrong), Journal of Management Development 8:6 (1989): 6-16.

“Looking Ahead: The Future of Women's Work” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Australian-Canadian Studies 3 (1985): 1-11. Also available in pamphlet form as the 1985 Phillip Law Lecture. Bundoora (Australia): The PIT Press, 1985. Revised version, pp. 312-25 in Meg Luxton and Heather Jon Maroney, eds. Feminism and Political Economy: Women in Canada. Toronto: Methuen, 1987.

“Review Essay. Political Economy and the Household: Rejecting Separate Spheres.” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Studies in Political Economy 17 (Summer 1985): 167-77.

“More on Marxism and Feminism: A Response and Reply to Patricia Connelly” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Studies in Political Economy 15 (fall 1984): 179-184. Reprinted as pp. 249-254 in Michele Barrett and Roberta Hamilton, eds., The Politics of Diversity: Feminism, Marxism and Nationalism. London: Verso and Montreal: Book Centre, 1986.

“Beyond Numbers: Problems with Quantitative Data” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Alternate Routes 6 (1983): 1-40. Reprinted as pp. 307-335 in Mary Kinnear and Greg Mason, eds. Women and Work. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg Institute for Social and Economic Research, 1983. Revised version published as pp.54-79 in Greta Hofmann Nemiroff, ed., Women and Men: Interdisciplinary Readings on Gender. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1987

“Beyond Sexless Class and Classless Sex: Towards Feminist Marxism” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Studies in Political Economy 10 (winter 1983): 7-43. Excerpt reprinted as pp. 317-19 in Althea Pierce and Susan Silva-Wayne, eds., Feminisms and Womanisms: A Women’s Studies Reader. Toronto: Women’s Press, 2004. Reprinted as pp. 11-50 in Caroline Andrew et al., eds., Studies in Political Economy: Development in Feminism. Toronto: Women’s Press, 2003. Reprinted as pp. 1-37 in Pat Armstrong et al., Feminist Marxism or Marxist Feminism: A Debate. Toronto: Garamond, 1985. Revised version published as pp. 208-237 in Michele Barrett and Roberta Hamilton, eds. The Politics of Diversity. London: Verso and Montreal: Book Centre, 1987

“Underemployed and Unemployed.” (Pat Armstrong), Canadian Woman Studies 3:4 (Summer 1982): 41-43.

“Women and Jobs: The Canadian Case” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Equal Opportunities International (United Kingdom) 1:1 (1981): 3-9. Revised version published as Occasional Paper No. 6, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1981

“Women and Unemployment” (Pat Armstrong), Atlantis 6:1 (Fall 1980): 1-16. Another version published in French and English by the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women.

“The Segregated Participation of Women in the Canadian Labour Force, 1941-1971” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 12.4(1) (November 1975): 370-384.

Book Reviews

Review of Laurent Vogel, “The Gender Workplace Health Gap in Europe”(Pat Armstrong), Gender, Work and Organization 12:4 (June 2005)

Review of Rebecca Johnson, “Taxing Choices: The Intersection of Class, Gender, Parenthood, and the Law.” (Pat Armstrong), Canadian Tax Journal 51:5 (2003): 1961-66

Review of Miriam Glucksmann, “Cottons and Casuals: The Gendered Organization of Work.” (Pat Armstrong), Canadian Journal of Sociology online. http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/cjscopy/reviews/cottons:html

Review of Antonia Maioni, “Parting at the Crossroads: The Emergence of Health Insurance in the United States and Canada” (Pat Armstrong), American Historical Review (February 2000)

Review of Colleen Fuller, “Caring for Profit: How Corporations are Taking Over Canada’s Health Care System.” (Pat Armstrong), CAUT Bulletin (January 1999)

Review of Miriam Stewart, “Integrating Social Support in Nursing” (Pat Armstrong), Health and Canadian Society 2:1 (1994)

Review of Steven Rhoads, “Incomparable Worth in Gender” (Pat Armstrong), Work and Organization 1:3 (July 1994)

Review of Judith Rollins, “Between Women: Domestics and Their Employers” (Pat Armstrong), Labour/Le Travail 28 (Spring 1988)

Review of Charlene Gannage, “Double Day, Double Bind” (Pat Armstrong), Perception 10:3 (January 1987)

Review of Elizabeth Roberts, “A Woman's Place” and Jean Burnet, ed., “Looking into My Sister's Eyes” (Pat Armstrong), The Canadian Journal of Sociology 12:4 (Winter 1987)

Review of W. Craig Riddell, Research Co-ordinator, “Work and Pay: The Canadian Labour Market” (Pat Armstrong), Queen's Quarterly 94:1 (Spring 1987)

Review of Wendy Chapkis and Cynthia Enloe, eds., “Of Common Cloth: Women in the Global Textile Industry” (Pat Armstrong), Resources for Feminist Research 16:4 (June 1987)

Review of Jan Zimmerman, ed., “The Technological Woman” (Pat Armstrong), Perception 7:3 (January-February 1984)

Review of Marianne Herzog, “From Hand to Mouth: Women and Piecework” (Pat Armstrong), Labour/Le Travailleur 12 (Fall 1983)

Review of D.C. McKie, B. Prentice and P. Reed, “Divorce: Law and the Family in Canada” (Pat Armstrong), Perception 6:5 (Summer 1983)

Review of the OECD, “Equal Opportunities for Women” (Pat Armstrong), Resources for Feminist Research 9:3 (November 1980)

“In Canada, There's Still No Room at the Top: Review of Dennis Olsen, The State Elite” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Montreal Gazette (19 April 1980).

Review of Pat Marchak, ed., “The Working Sexes” (Pat Armstrong), Canadian Newsletter of Research on Women 7:3 (November 1978)

Review Essay on Janice Action et al., eds., “Women at Work: Ontario 1850-1930” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Our Generation 11:3 (Summer 1976): 46-48

Research Reports

“‘Out of Control’: Violence Against Personal Support Workers in Long-Term Care” (Albert Banerjee, Tamara Daly, Hugh Armstrong, Pat Armstrong, Stirling Lafrance and Marta Szebehely). Distributed in supporting unions and through York University and the Canadian Women’s Health Network, 2008, 24 pp.

“Contradictions: Health Equity and Women’s Health in Toronto” (Tamara Daly, Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Susan Braedley and Vanessa Oliver). Toronto: Wellesley Institute, 2008, 71 pp.

“Critical to Care: Women and Ancillary Work in Health Care” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and Krista Scott Dixon). Distributed by the National Network on Environments and Women’s Health, York University, January 2006, 113 pp. Excerpt published as “Who Counts as a Health Care Worker?” Canadian Women’s Health Network 8:3/4 (Spring 2006): 12-13

“‘There are not enough hands’: Conditions in Ontario’s Long-Term Care Facilities” (Pat Armstrong and Tamara Daly). Report prepared for the Canadian Union of Public Employees. Toronto, 2004

“Trade Agreements, Home Care and Women’s Health” (Olena Hankivsky, Marina Morrow, Pat Armstrong, Lindsay Galvin and Holly Grinvalds). Ottawa: Status of Women in Canada, 2004

“Conceptualizing Care.” (Pat Armstrong, Kate Laxer and Hugh Armstrong) Introduction to the Health Module in the Gender and Work Database. www.genderwork.ca, 2004

“Reading Romanow. The Implications of the Final Report of The Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada for Women.” (Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Barbara Clow, Karen Grant, Ann Pederson, Kay Willson and Olena Hankivsky, Beth Jackson and Marina Morrow). Winnipeg: Canadian Women’s Health Network, 2003

“Planning For Care.” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Paper commissioned by the Commission on the Future of Health Care (Romanow), 2002. www.healthcarecommission.ca

“Thinking It Through: Women, Work and Caring in the New Millennium” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Paper prepared for The Healthy Balance Research Programme, Maritime Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health, Halifax, October 2001

“100 Years of Caregiving.” (Pat Armstrong and Olga Kitts). Report prepared to the Law Commission of Canada, 2001

“Assessing the Impact of Restructuring and Work Reorganization in Long Term Care” (Pat Armstrong, Irene Jansen, Erin Connell and Mavis Jones). Toronto: National Network For Environments and Women’s Health, 2001

“Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value” (Pat Armstrong). Report prepared for the Public Service Alliance of Canada, in Canadian Postal Workers vs Canada Post. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission, January, 1993. Revised for the Canadian Human Rights Commission, Spring 1998 and 2000

“Women, Privatization and Health Care Reform: The Ontario Case” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Toronto: National Network on Environments and Women’s Health, December 1999

“Managing Reform: Managing Care: Perspectives from B.C. Nurses” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Ivy Bourgeault, Jacqueline Choiniere, Eric Mykalovskiy and Jerry White). Ottawa: Carleton University, 1999

“Integrating the Social Sciences and Humanities in the CIHR.” (Working Group on the Canadian Institutes of Health Gender and Women’s Health Research: Lorraine Greaves and Penny Ballem, Principle Investigators) Research Report submitted to the SSHRC and the CIHR Foundation, Ottawa, October 1999. Karen Grant PI.

“The Consequences of Government Policy Changes in Long Term Care In Ontario. A Survey of Care Providers.” (Pat Armstrong, Laura Sky, Ellen Long, Hugh Armstrong, Jacqueline Choiniere, Eric Mykhalovskiy, Jerry White and Ivy Bourgeault). Toronto: CUPE and SEIU, 1997

“The Promise and The Price: New Work Organization in Health Care.” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Jacqueline Choiniere, Eric Mykhalovskiy and Jerry White). Toronto: York University Centre for Health Studies, 1996

"Voices From the Ward: A Pilot Study of the Impact of Cutbacks on Hospital Care" (Pat Armstrong, Jackie Choiniere, Gina Feldberg and Jerry White). Toronto: York University Centre for Health Studies, February, 1994

“Closer to Home: More Work for Women” (Pat Armstrong). Report published by the British Columbia Hospital Employees Union, November 1993

Registration Project Report on Prior Learning Assessment (Pat Armstrong, Elizabeth Allemang, Hugh Armstrong and Freda Seddon). Prepared for the Transitional Council of the Ontario College of Midwives, June 1993

“Understanding the Numbers: Women in Television and Film” (Pat Armstrong). Report prepared for Toronto Women in Film and Television, January 1992.

“Families at Play.” (Pat Armstrong and Laura Johnson). Report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Recreation, 1991

“Under 10's: Small Business and Pay Equity” (Pat Armstrong). Report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Labour's Green Paper on Pay Equity, 1991

“Predominately Female Sectors: Health Care.” (Pat Armstrong with assistance from Jacqueline Choiniere, Chris Gabriel and Jan Kainer). Report prepared for the Ontario Pay Equity Commission, September, 1988

Forthcoming

Thinking Women: Health Care (Pat Armstrong, Barbara Clow, Karen Grant, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Beth Jackson, Ann Pederson and Morgan Seeley), Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, forthcoming 2011


Pat Armstrong held a Canada Health Services Research Foundation/Canadian Institute of Health Research Chair in Health Services, is a Distinguished Research Professor in Sociology and Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. Focusing on the fields of social policy, of women, work and the health and social services, she has published widely, co-authoring and co-editing such books as Troubliing Care:Critical Perspectives on Research and Practices; Shaping Academe for the Public Good; Thinking Women and Health Care Reform in Canada: Women’s health: Intersections of Research, Policy and Practice;They Deserve Better: the Long-term Care Experience in Canada and Scandinavia; A Place to Call Home: Long-term Care in Canada; Critical to Care: the Invisible Women in Health Services and Wasting Away; The Undermining of Canadian Health Care. .Much of this work makes the relationship between paid and unpaid work central to the analysis. She was Chair of Women and Health Care Reform, a group funded for more than a decade by Health Canada, and was acting director of the National Network for Environments and Women’s Health. She is currently co-director at York of the Ontario Training Centre, a member of the Board for the York Institute for Health Research and has served as both Chair of the Department of Sociology at York and Director of the School of Canadian Studies at Carleton. She is also a board member of the Canadian Health Coalition and the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. In addition, she has served as an expert witness in more than a dozen cases, heard before bodies ranging from the Federal Court to federal Human Rights Tribunals on issues related to women’s health care work and to pay equity. She has been a co-investigator and principal investigator on a large number of grants, primarily focused on women’s work, women’s health and health care. Funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada, she is Pincipal Investigator on "Reimagining Long-term Residential Care: An International Study of Promising Practices" and on the CIHR funded "Healthy Aging in Residential Places"

Area of Specialization

health care and health policy; women and work; feminist political economy


Degrees

Ph.D., Sociology, Carleton University
M.A., Canadian Studies, Carleton University
B.A., Sociology, University of Toronto

Appointments

Faculty of Health


Research Interests:

Health , Women's Studies

All Publications

Books

Wasting Away: The Undermining of Canadian Health Care (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Wynford Project Edition, with new Introduction. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2010, xii + 271 pp.

The Double Ghetto: Canadian Women and Their Segregated Work (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Wynford Project Edition, with new Preface. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2010, 7 + 259 pp.

A Place to Call Home: Long Term Care in Canada (Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Barbara Clow, Karen Grant, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Beth Jackson, Ann Pederson, Morgan Seeley, Jane Springer, eds.), Toronto: Fernwood Publishing, 2009, 127 pp.

They Deserve Better: The long-term care experience in Canada and Scandinavia (Pat Armstrong, Albert Banerjee, Marta Szebehely, Hugh Armstrong, Tamara Daly and Stirling Lafrance ) Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2009, 155 pp.

Women’s Health: Intersections of Policy, Research and Practice (Pat Armstrong and Jennifer Deadman eds.), Toronto: Women’s Press, 2008, xi + 290 pp.

Critical to Care; The Invisible Women in Health Services (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and Krista Scott-Dixon), Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008, xii + 228 pp.

About Canada: Health Care (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 2008, 157 pp.

Caring For/Caring About. Women, Home Care and Unpaid Caregiving (Karen R. Grant, Carol Amaratunga, Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Ann Pederson and Kay Willson eds.), Aurora: Garamond Press, 2004, 200 pp.

Studies in Political Economy: Developments in Feminism (Caroline Andrew, Hugh Armstrong, Pat Armstrong, Wallace Clement and Leah Vosko eds.). Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press, 2003, vi + 362 pp.

Wasting Away: The Undermining of Canadian Health Care (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Revised Second Edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2002, viii + 272 pp.

Exposing Privatization: Women and Health Care Reform (Pat Armstrong, Carol Amaratunga, Jocelyne Bernier, Karen Grant, Ann Pederson and Kay Willson eds.). Aurora: Garamond Press, 2002, 308 pp.

Unhealthy Times: Political Economy Perspectives on Health and Care in Canada (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and David Coburn eds.). Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2001, x + 254 pp.

“Heal Thyself”: Managing Health Care Reform (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Ivy Bourgeault, Jacqueline Choiniere, Eric Mykhalovskiy and Jerry White). Toronto: Garamond Press, 2000, 171 pp.

World Class Cities: Can Canada Play? (Caroline Andrew, Pat Armstrong, and André Lapierre eds.) . Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1999, 454 pp.

Feminism, Political Economy and the State: Contested Terrain (Pat Armstrong and M. Patricia Connelly eds.). Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press, 1999, 373 pp.

Universal Health Care. What the United States Can Learn From the Canadian Experience (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and Claudia Fegan). New York: The New Press, 1998, xv + 176 pp.

Medical Alert: New Work Organizations in Health Care (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Jacqueline Choiniere, Eric Mykhalovskiy and Jerry White), Toronto: Garamond Press, 1997, x + 158 pp.

Wasting Away: The Undermining of Canadian Health Care (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1996, viii + 245 pp.

Take Care: Warning Signals for Canadian Health Care (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Jacqueline Choiniere, Gina Feldberg and Jerry White eds.), Toronto: Garamond Press, 1994, 127 pp.

The Double Ghetto: Canadian Women and Their Segregated Work (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Revised Third Edition. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1994, 259 pp.

Vital Signs: Nursing Work in Transition (Pat Armstrong, Jacqueline Choiniere and Elaine Day), Toronto: Garamond Press, 1993, 125 pp.

Feminism in Action: Studies in Political Economy (Pat Armstrong, M. Patricia Connelly eds.), Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press, 1992, 342 pp.

Theorizing Women's Work (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Toronto: Garamond Press, 1990, 161 pp.

The Double Ghetto: Canadian Women and Their Segregated Work (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1978, 199 pp.

Labour Pains: Women's Work in Crisis (Pat Armstrong), Toronto: The Women's Press, 1984, 273 pp.

The Double Ghetto: Canadian Women and Their Segregated Work (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Revised Second Edition. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1984, 223 pp.

A Working Majority: What Women Must Do for Pay (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada for the Canadian Advisory Council on the Status of Women, 1983, 280 pp. Translated as Une Majorité Laborieuse: Les femmes qui gagnent leur vie, mais a quel prix. Ottawa: Approvisionnements et Services Canada pour le Conseil Consultatif Canadien de la Situation de la Femme, 1983, 329 pp.

Book Chapters

“Pay Equity: Yesterday’s Issue” (Pat Armstrong), in Lorne Tepperman and Angela Kalyta, eds., Reading Sociology: Canadian Perspectives. Second Edition., forthcoming 2010.

“Five Minutes with the Health Minister: What Women Want in Health Care” (Karen Grant, Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Barbara Clow, Nancy Guberman, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Beth Jackson, Ann Pederson, Morgan Seeley and Kay Wilson), pp. 147-58 in Nili Kaplan-Myrth, Lori Hanson and Patricia Thille, eds., Women Who Care: Women’s Stories of Health Care and Caring. East Lawrenstown NS: Pottersfield Press, 2010

“Pay Equity in Canada, The Story Continues” (Pat Armstrong and Kristan Scott Dixon) in Gillian Whitehouse, ed., Equal Pay for Women? Trends and Perspectives in Cross-National Perspective. New York: Routledge Press, forthcoming 2010

“Gender, Health and Care” (Pat Armstrong) in Dennis Raphael and Tulsa Bryant, eds. Staying Alive. Critical Perspectives on Health, Illness and Care. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, forthcoming 2010

“Women Forced to Work Longer, Harder, for Less Pay” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 7-14 in Trish Hennessy and Ed Finn, eds., Speaking Truth to Power: A Reader on Canadian Women’s Inequality. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2010

“Neoliberalism in Action: Canadian Perspectives” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 184-201 in Susan Braedley and Meg Luxton, eds., Neoliberalism and Everyday Life. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010

“Women’s Health Centres” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 371-86 in Ellen Kuhlmann and Ellen Annandale, eds., The Palgrave Handbook of Gender and Healthcare. Basingstoke UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010

“Gendering Work? Women and Technologies in Health Care” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and Karen Messing), pp. 122-37 in Ellen Balka, Eileen Green and Flis Henwood, eds., Gender, Health and Information Technology in Context. Basingstoke UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009

“Contradictions at Work: Struggles for Control in Canadian Health Care” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 145-67 in Leo Panitch and Colin Leys, eds., Morbid Symptoms: Health under Capitalism. Socialist Register 2010. Pontypool Wales: Merlin Press and New York: Monthly Review Press, 2009

“Precarious Employment in the Health-Care Sector” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 256-70 in Leah F. Vosko, Martha MacDonald, Iain Campbell, eds., Gender and the Contours of Precarious Employment. New York: Routledge Press, 2009.

“Foreword” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 7-8 in Celia Briar, ed., Hidden Health Hazards in Women’s Work. Wellington NZ: Dunmore Publishing, 2009.

“Taking Power: Making Change Nurses’ Unions in Canada” (Pat Armstrong and Linda Silas), pp. 316-36 in Marjorie McIntyre and Carol McDonald, eds., Realities of Canadian Nursing: Professional, Practice, and Power Issues. Third Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2009

“Challenging Questions: Designing Long-Term Facility Care with Women in Mind” (Pat Armstrong and Albert Banerjee), pp. 110-18 in Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Barbara Clow, Karen Grant, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Beth Jackson, Ann Pederson, Morgan Seeley and Jane Springer, eds. A Place to Call Home: Long Term Care in Canada, Toronto: Fernwood Publishing, 2009

“Public Policy, Gender, and Health” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 350-61 in Dennis Raphael, ed., Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives. Second Edition. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2009

“Managing Care the Canadian Way” (Pat Armstrong), pp. in Johanna Fisher, ed., Biomedical Ethics: A Canadian Focus. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2009.

“Social Cohesion and the State: The Health Care Example” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 87-106 in Alexandra Dobrowolsky, ed., Women and Public Policy in Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2009

“Gender Relations” (Pat Armstrong), pp. in Lorne Tepperman and Patrizia Albanese, eds., Sociology: A Canadian Perspective. Revised Third Edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2008

“Doing Women’s Studies” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 250-55 in Wendy Robbins, Meg Luxton, Margrit Eichler, and Francine Descarries, eds., Minds of Our Own: Inventing Feminist Scholarship and Women’s Studies in Canada and Quebec, 1966–76. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier Press, 2008

“Las mujeres, el trabajo y el cuidado de los demás en el actual milenio” (“Thinking it Through: Women, Work and Caring in the New Millenium”) (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 195-204 in María Luisa Clark, ed. La mediciόn de las aportaciones de las mujeres a la salud y al desarrollo en las Américas: encuestas sobre el empleo del tiempo y cuentas satélite del sector familiar Measuring Women’s Contributions to Health and Development in the Americas: Household Satellite Accounts and Time-Use Surveys, 2008

“Women and Health Care Reform” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 257-61 in Bruce Campbell and Greg Marchildon, eds., Medicare: Facts, Myths, Problems and Promises Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2007

“Health Care Reform and Its Impact on Women” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 333-55 in Les Samuelson and Wayne Antony, eds., Power and Resistance: Critical Thinking about Canadian Social Issues. Fourth Edition. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 2007

“Doubtful Data: Why Paradigms Matter in Counting the Health-Care Labor Force” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and Kate Laxer), pp. 326-48 in Vivian Shalla and Wallace Clement, eds. Work in Tumultuous Times: Critical Perspectives. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2007

“Relocating Care: Home Care in Ontario”, (Pat Armstrong), pp. 528-53 in Marina Morrow, Olena Hankivsky and Colleen Varcoe, eds. Women’s Health in Canada: Critical Perspective on Theory and Policy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007

“Gender, Health and Care” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 287-304 in Dennis Raphael, Toba Bryant and Marcia Rioux, eds. Staying Alive: Critical Perspectives on Health, Illness, and Health Care. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2006

“Precarious Work, Privatization, and the Health-Care Industry: The Case of Ancillary Workers” (Pat Armstrong and Kate Laxer), pp. 115-38 in Leah Vosko, ed., Precarious Employment: Understanding Labour Market Insecurity in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2006

“Health, Social Policy, Social Economics, and the Voluntary Sector” (Pat Armstrong), pp.331-44 in Dennis Raphael, ed., Social Determinants of Health: Canadian Perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2004

"Gender Relations" (Pat Armstrong), pp. 380-401 in Lorne Tepperman and James Curtis, eds., Sociology: A Canadian Perspective. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2004

“Planning for Care: Approaches to Human Resources Policy and Planning in Health Care” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 117-49 in Pierre Gerlier Forest, Gregory P. Marchildon and Tom McIntosh, eds., Changing Health Care in Canada. Romanow Papers, Volume 2. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004. Translated as “Planification des soins: approches en matière de politiques et de planification des ressources humaines de la santé”, pp. 125-63 in Pierre-Gerlier Forest, Gregory P. Marchildon and Tom McIntosh, eds., Les forces de changement dans le système de santé canadien. Ottawa: Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa, 2004

“Caregiving in Historical Perspective” (Pat Armstrong and Olga Kits), pp. 23-63 in Paul Leduc Browne, ed., The Commodity of Care: Assessing Ontario’s Experiment with Managed Competition in Home Care. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2004

“Assessing the Impact of Restructuring and Work Reorganization in Long Term Care” (Pat Armstrong, Irene Jansen, Erin Connell and Mavis Jones), pp. 175-217 in Penny Van Esterik, ed. Head, Heart and Hands: Partnerships for Women’s Health in Canadian Environments. Volume 1. Toronto: National Network on Environments and Women’s Health, 2003

“Privatization as Health-Care Reform and Its Impact on Women” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 315-36 in Wayne Antony, ed., Power and Resistance. Third Edition. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 2003

“Pay Equity: Complexities and Contradictions in Legal and Social Processes” (Pat Armstrong, Mary Cornish and Elizabeth Millar), pp. 161-82 in Wallace Clement and Leah Vosko, eds., Changing Canada: Political Economy as Transformation. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003

“Feminist Methodology” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 11-24 in Merle Jacobs, ed., Is Anyone Listening? Women, Work and Society, Toronto: Women’s Press, 2002. Reprinted from Theorizing Women’s Work, 1990

“The Everyday Practices of Rationing: Comparing the Voices of Nurses in California and British Columbia”(I. Bourgeault, S. Lindsay, E. Mykhalovskiy, H. Armstrong, P. Armstrong, J. Choiniere, S. Lexchin, S. Peters, and J.P. White), pp. 83-103 in Donald Light and David Hughes, eds., Rationing: Constructed Realities and Professional Practices. Malden MA: Blackwell, 2002. Reprinted from Sociology of Health and Illness.

“The Context for Health Care Reform” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 11-48 in Pat Armstrong, et al, eds., Exposing Privatization: Women and Health Care Reform. Toronto: Garamond Press, 2001

“Women, Privatization and Health Care Reform: The Ontario Case” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 163-216 in Pat Armstrong, et al., eds. Exposing Privatization: Women and Health Care Reform. Toronto: Garamond Press, 2001

“Evidence-Based Health Care Reform: Women’s Issues” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 121-45 in Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and David Coburn, eds., Unhealthy Times. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 2001

“Women and Health: Not Just a Matter of Care” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 260-78 in Nancy Mandell, ed., Feminist Issues: Race, Class and Sexuality. Revised Third Edition. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 2001

“Women and Health: Challenges and Changes”, (Pat Armstrong), pp. 249-66 in Nancy Mandell, ed. Feminist Issues: Race, Class and Sexuality. Revised Second Edition. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1998

“Restructuring Public and Private: Women's Paid and Unpaid Work” (Pat Armstrong), pp.37-61 in Susan B. Boyd, ed. Challenging the Public/Private Divide: Feminism, Law and Public Policy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997. Revised version pp. 37-61 in Barbara A. Crow and Lise Gotell, eds., Open Boundaries: A Canadian Women’s Studies Reader. Toronto: Prentice-Hall, 2000

“Pay Equity: Not Just a Matter of Money”(Pat Armstrong), pp. 246-65 in Patricia Evans and Gerda Werkerle, eds., Women and the Canadian Welfare State: Challenges and Changes. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997. Revised version pp. 122-37 in Caroline Andrew and Sandra Rogers, eds., Women and the Canadian State. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1997

“From Caring and Sharing to Greedy and Mean?” (Pat Armstrong), in André Lapierre, Patricia Smart and Pierre Savard, eds. Language, Culture and Values in Canada at the Dawn of the 21st Century. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1996. Revised version published as "The Welfare State as History", pp. 52-71 in Raymond Blake, Penny Bryden and J. Frank Strain, eds. The Welfare State in Canada. Concord: Irwin, 1997, pp. 251-268.

“The Feminization of the Labour Force: Harmonizing Down in A Global Economy” (Pat Armstrong) , pp. 368-392 in Karen Messing, Barbara Neis and Lucie Dumais, eds. Invisible: La Santé des Travailleuses. Charlottetown: Gynergy, 1995. Revised version pp. 29-54 in Isabella Bakker, ed., Rethinking Restructuring: Gender and Change in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996

“Unraveling the Safety Net: Transformations in Health Care and Their Impact on Women” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 129-50 in Janine Brodie, ed. Women and Canadian Public Policy. Toronto: Harcourt Brace, 1995

“Women and Health: Challenges and Changes” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 294-314 in Nancy Mandell, ed. Feminist Issues: Race, Class and Sexuality. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1995

“Health Care as a Business: The Legacy of Free Trade” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 218-34 in Wayne Antony, ed., Power and Resistance. Second Edition. Halifax: Fernwood, 1998. Revised from Take Care: Warning Signals for the Canadian Health System, 1994.

“Gender Relations” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 345-77 in Jack Richardson, Lorne Tepperman and James Curtis, eds., The Social World. Revised Third Edition. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1994

“Professions, Unions or What? Learning from Nurses” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 304-24 in Linda Briskin and Patricia McDermott, eds., Women Challenging Unions: Feminism, Democracy, and Militancy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993

“Women as Victims, Women as Actors”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 299-310 in James Curtis, Edward Grabb and Neil Guppy, eds. Social Inequality in Canada. Second Edition. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1993. Reprinted from Theorizing Women's Work, 1990.

“Work and Family Life: Changing Patterns” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 127-45 in G.N. Ramu, ed., Marriage and the Family in Canada Today. Second Edition. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1993

“Women and Work: Learning From the Research Experience” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 135-46 in Joan Brockman and Dorothy E. Chunn, eds. Investigating Gender Bias in the Law: Socio-Legal Perspectives. Toronto: Thompson, 1993

“Better Irreverent than Irrelevant”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 339-48 in William Carroll et al., eds. Fragile Truths: 25 Years of Sociology and Anthropology in Canada. Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1992

“Gender Relations” (Pat Armstrong), pp. in Jack Richardson and Lorne Tepperman, eds., The Social World. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1991

“Understanding the Numbers: Women in the Film and Television Industry” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 3-38 in Toronto Women in Film and Television, ed. Changing Focus: The Future of Women in the Canadian Film and Television Industry. Toronto: TWIF, 1991

“Women and the Double Ghetto” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 381-89 in James Curtis and Lorne Tepperman, eds. Images of Canada. Scarborough: Prentice Hall, 1990. Reprinted from The Double Ghetto, 1984.

“Economic Conditions and Family Structures” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 67-92 in Maureen Baker, ed., Families: Changing Trends in Canada. Second Edition. McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1990

“Choosing Equity and Prosperity: Access to College and the Ontario Economy”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 1-27 in Ontario Council of Regents, Colleges and the Changing Economy: Background Papers, Vision 2000. Toronto: Author, 1989

“Women's Work in the Labour Force” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 275-315 in Arlene Tiger McLaren, ed., Gender and Society: Creating a Canadian Women's Sociology. Toronto: Copp-Clark Pitman, 1988. Reprinted from The Double Ghetto, 1984.

“Unemployment as a Women's Issue” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 385-93 in Lorne Tepperman and James Curtis, eds., Readings in Sociology: An Introduction. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1988

“The Marital System: Australian and Canadian Patterns” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 179-206 in Bonnie Fox, ed. Family Bonds and Gender Division. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 1988

“Taking Women into Account: Redefining and Intensifying Employment in Canada” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 65-84 in Elizabeth Hagen, Jane Jenson and Trudi Koziol, eds., Feminization of the Labour Force: Paradoxes and Promises. Cambridge: Polity and New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

“Work and Family Life: Changing Patterns” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 121-42 in G. N. Ramu, ed., Marriage and the Family in Canada Today. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall, 1988

“Women, Family and Economy”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 143-74 in Ann Duffy and Nancy Mandell, eds., The Canadian Family: Feminist Reflections. Scarborough: Butterworths, 1988

“Mediating the Conflicting Demands of 'Home' and 'Work'”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 113-41 in Karen Anderson et al., Family Matters. Toronto: Methuen, in association with TVOntario, 1987

“Women and the Economic Crisis in Canada”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 225-46 in Robert Argue, Charlene Gannage and David Livingstone, eds., Working People in Hard Times: Canadian Perspectives. Toronto: Garamond, 1987

“Women's Work: Women's Wages” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 354-76 in Greta Hofmann Nemiroff, ed., Women and Men: Interdisciplinary Readings on Gender. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1987

“Women, Technology and the Economic Crisis” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 43-96 in John F. Peters, ed., Work in Canada. Occasional Paper No. 4. Waterloo: Interdisciplinary Research Committee, Wilfred Laurier University, 1986

“Women” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 36-43 in Daniel Drache and Wallace Clement, eds., A Practical Guide to Canadian Political Economy. Revised Second Edition. Toronto: Lorimer, 1985

“The Structure of Women's Labour Force Work: Everywhere and Nowhere”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 130-36 in Graham S. Lowe and Harvey Krahn, eds., Working Canadians: A Reader in the Sociology of Work and Industry. Toronto: Methuen, 1984. Reprinted from A Working Majority, 1983

“Job Creation and Unemployment for Canadian Women”, (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), pp. 129-52 in Anne Hoiberg, ed., Women and the World of Work. New York: Plenum, 1982. Revised versions, pp. 209-55 in Naomi Hersom and Dorothy E. Smith, eds., Women and the Canadian Labour Force. Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada, 1982; and as Working Paper No. 9, Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, 1982

“Women and Unemployment” (Pat Armstrong), pp. 70-101 in R. Marvyn Novick, ed., Full Employment: Social Questions for Public Policy. Toronto: Social Planning Council of Metropolitan Toronto, 1979

Journal Articles

“Qualitative research and the politics of knowledge in an age of evidence: Developing a research-based practice of immanent critique” (Eric Mykhalousky, Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Ivy Bourgeault, Jackie Choiniere, Joel Lexchin, Suzanne Peters and Jerry White), Social Science and Medicine 67 (2008): 195-203

“Bringing it Home: Women’s Health Work” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Women's Health and Urban Life: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal VII:2 (December 2008): 6-15

“Back to Basics: Pay Equity for Women Today” (Pat Armstrong), Labour and Industry 18:2 (December 2007): 11-32

“Indicators for All: Including Occupational Health” (Ellen Balka, Karen Messing and Pat Armstrong), Indicators for a Sustainable Health Care System: Policy and Practices in Health and Safety 4:1 (2006): 69-85

“Public and Private: Implications for Care Work” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Sociological Review 53.s2 (2005): 167-187. Reprinted in Lynne Pettinger Jane Parry, Rebecca Taylor and Miriam Glucksman, eds., A New Sociology of Work, Oxford: Blackwell, 2006

“Quality Care is Like a Carton of Eggs: Using a Gender-based Diversity Analysis to Assess Quality of Health Care” (Beth E. Jackson, Ann Pederson, Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Barbara Clow, Karen R. Grant, Nancy Guberman, and Kay Willson), Canadian Woman Studies 24 (2005): 15-22.

“At First You Will Not Succeed: Negotiating For Care in the Context of Health Reform” (I. L. Bourgeault, S. Lindsay, Eric Mykhalovskiy, H.Armstrong, P. Armstrong, J. Choiniere, J. Lexchin, S. Peters, and J, P. White), Research in the Sociology of Health Care 22 (2004): 263-278

“Thinking it Through. Women, Work and Caring in the New Millennium” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Canadian Woman Studies/les cahiers de la femme. 21/22:4/1 (Spring/Summer 2002): 44-50. Summary version of the original. Reprinted as pp. 145-53 in Barbara A. Crow and Lise Gotell, eds. Open Boundaries: A Canadian Women’s Studies Reader. Toronto: Prentice-Hall, 2004.

“Market Principles, Business Practices and Health Care: Comparing the U.S. and Canadian Experiences” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault, Jacqueline Choiniere, Joel Lexchin, Eric Mykhalovskiy, Suzanne Peters and Jerry P. White), International Journal of Canadian Studies 28 (Fall 2003): 13-38, issue on “Health and Well-being in Canada”

“Everyday Experiences of Implicit Rationing: Comparing the Voices of Nurses in California and British Columbia” (I. Bourgeault, H. Armstrong, P. Armstrong, J. Choiniere, J. Lexchin, E. Mykhalovskiy, S. Peters and J.P. White), Sociology of Health and Illness. 23.5 (2001): 633-653.

“The Impact of Managed Care on Nurses’ Learning and Teaching” (Jerry White, Hugh Armstrong, Pat Armstrong, Ivy Bourgeault, Jacqueline Choiniere and Eric Mykalovskiy), Nursing Inquiry 7 (2000): 74-80.

“Decentralized Health Care in Canada” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), British Medical Journal 318 (May 1999): 1201-04.

“Restructuring Pay Equity for a Restructured Work Force: Canadian Perspectives” (Pat Armstrong and Mary Cornish), Gender, Work and Organization 4:2 (April 1997): 67-86.

“Resurrecting the Family: Interring the State” (Pat Armstrong), Journal of Comparative Family Studies 27:2 (Summer 1996): 221-248.

“Caring and Women's Work” (Pat Armstrong), Health and Canadian Society, 2:1 (1996): 109-18.

“Lessons from Pay Equity” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Studies in Political Economy 32 (Spring 1990): 29-54. Reprinted as pp. 286-314 in M. Patricia Connelly and Pat Armstrong, eds., Feminism in Action. Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press, 1992

“Sex and the Professions in Canada” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Journal of Canadian Studies 27:1 (1989): 118-35

“Is There Still A Chairman of the Board?” (Pat Armstrong), Journal of Management Development 8:6 (1989): 6-16.

“Looking Ahead: The Future of Women's Work” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Australian-Canadian Studies 3 (1985): 1-11. Also available in pamphlet form as the 1985 Phillip Law Lecture. Bundoora (Australia): The PIT Press, 1985. Revised version, pp. 312-25 in Meg Luxton and Heather Jon Maroney, eds. Feminism and Political Economy: Women in Canada. Toronto: Methuen, 1987.

“Review Essay. Political Economy and the Household: Rejecting Separate Spheres.” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Studies in Political Economy 17 (Summer 1985): 167-77.

“More on Marxism and Feminism: A Response and Reply to Patricia Connelly” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Studies in Political Economy 15 (fall 1984): 179-184. Reprinted as pp. 249-254 in Michele Barrett and Roberta Hamilton, eds., The Politics of Diversity: Feminism, Marxism and Nationalism. London: Verso and Montreal: Book Centre, 1986.

“Beyond Numbers: Problems with Quantitative Data” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Alternate Routes 6 (1983): 1-40. Reprinted as pp. 307-335 in Mary Kinnear and Greg Mason, eds. Women and Work. Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg Institute for Social and Economic Research, 1983. Revised version published as pp.54-79 in Greta Hofmann Nemiroff, ed., Women and Men: Interdisciplinary Readings on Gender. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1987

“Beyond Sexless Class and Classless Sex: Towards Feminist Marxism” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Studies in Political Economy 10 (winter 1983): 7-43. Excerpt reprinted as pp. 317-19 in Althea Pierce and Susan Silva-Wayne, eds., Feminisms and Womanisms: A Women’s Studies Reader. Toronto: Women’s Press, 2004. Reprinted as pp. 11-50 in Caroline Andrew et al., eds., Studies in Political Economy: Development in Feminism. Toronto: Women’s Press, 2003. Reprinted as pp. 1-37 in Pat Armstrong et al., Feminist Marxism or Marxist Feminism: A Debate. Toronto: Garamond, 1985. Revised version published as pp. 208-237 in Michele Barrett and Roberta Hamilton, eds. The Politics of Diversity. London: Verso and Montreal: Book Centre, 1987

“Underemployed and Unemployed.” (Pat Armstrong), Canadian Woman Studies 3:4 (Summer 1982): 41-43.

“Women and Jobs: The Canadian Case” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Equal Opportunities International (United Kingdom) 1:1 (1981): 3-9. Revised version published as Occasional Paper No. 6, Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 1981

“Women and Unemployment” (Pat Armstrong), Atlantis 6:1 (Fall 1980): 1-16. Another version published in French and English by the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women.

“The Segregated Participation of Women in the Canadian Labour Force, 1941-1971” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 12.4(1) (November 1975): 370-384.

Book Reviews

Review of Laurent Vogel, “The Gender Workplace Health Gap in Europe”(Pat Armstrong), Gender, Work and Organization 12:4 (June 2005)

Review of Rebecca Johnson, “Taxing Choices: The Intersection of Class, Gender, Parenthood, and the Law.” (Pat Armstrong), Canadian Tax Journal 51:5 (2003): 1961-66

Review of Miriam Glucksmann, “Cottons and Casuals: The Gendered Organization of Work.” (Pat Armstrong), Canadian Journal of Sociology online. http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/cjscopy/reviews/cottons:html

Review of Antonia Maioni, “Parting at the Crossroads: The Emergence of Health Insurance in the United States and Canada” (Pat Armstrong), American Historical Review (February 2000)

Review of Colleen Fuller, “Caring for Profit: How Corporations are Taking Over Canada’s Health Care System.” (Pat Armstrong), CAUT Bulletin (January 1999)

Review of Miriam Stewart, “Integrating Social Support in Nursing” (Pat Armstrong), Health and Canadian Society 2:1 (1994)

Review of Steven Rhoads, “Incomparable Worth in Gender” (Pat Armstrong), Work and Organization 1:3 (July 1994)

Review of Judith Rollins, “Between Women: Domestics and Their Employers” (Pat Armstrong), Labour/Le Travail 28 (Spring 1988)

Review of Charlene Gannage, “Double Day, Double Bind” (Pat Armstrong), Perception 10:3 (January 1987)

Review of Elizabeth Roberts, “A Woman's Place” and Jean Burnet, ed., “Looking into My Sister's Eyes” (Pat Armstrong), The Canadian Journal of Sociology 12:4 (Winter 1987)

Review of W. Craig Riddell, Research Co-ordinator, “Work and Pay: The Canadian Labour Market” (Pat Armstrong), Queen's Quarterly 94:1 (Spring 1987)

Review of Wendy Chapkis and Cynthia Enloe, eds., “Of Common Cloth: Women in the Global Textile Industry” (Pat Armstrong), Resources for Feminist Research 16:4 (June 1987)

Review of Jan Zimmerman, ed., “The Technological Woman” (Pat Armstrong), Perception 7:3 (January-February 1984)

Review of Marianne Herzog, “From Hand to Mouth: Women and Piecework” (Pat Armstrong), Labour/Le Travailleur 12 (Fall 1983)

Review of D.C. McKie, B. Prentice and P. Reed, “Divorce: Law and the Family in Canada” (Pat Armstrong), Perception 6:5 (Summer 1983)

Review of the OECD, “Equal Opportunities for Women” (Pat Armstrong), Resources for Feminist Research 9:3 (November 1980)

“In Canada, There's Still No Room at the Top: Review of Dennis Olsen, The State Elite” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Montreal Gazette (19 April 1980).

Review of Pat Marchak, ed., “The Working Sexes” (Pat Armstrong), Canadian Newsletter of Research on Women 7:3 (November 1978)

Review Essay on Janice Action et al., eds., “Women at Work: Ontario 1850-1930” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong), Our Generation 11:3 (Summer 1976): 46-48

Research Reports

“‘Out of Control’: Violence Against Personal Support Workers in Long-Term Care” (Albert Banerjee, Tamara Daly, Hugh Armstrong, Pat Armstrong, Stirling Lafrance and Marta Szebehely). Distributed in supporting unions and through York University and the Canadian Women’s Health Network, 2008, 24 pp.

“Contradictions: Health Equity and Women’s Health in Toronto” (Tamara Daly, Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Susan Braedley and Vanessa Oliver). Toronto: Wellesley Institute, 2008, 71 pp.

“Critical to Care: Women and Ancillary Work in Health Care” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong and Krista Scott Dixon). Distributed by the National Network on Environments and Women’s Health, York University, January 2006, 113 pp. Excerpt published as “Who Counts as a Health Care Worker?” Canadian Women’s Health Network 8:3/4 (Spring 2006): 12-13

“‘There are not enough hands’: Conditions in Ontario’s Long-Term Care Facilities” (Pat Armstrong and Tamara Daly). Report prepared for the Canadian Union of Public Employees. Toronto, 2004

“Trade Agreements, Home Care and Women’s Health” (Olena Hankivsky, Marina Morrow, Pat Armstrong, Lindsay Galvin and Holly Grinvalds). Ottawa: Status of Women in Canada, 2004

“Conceptualizing Care.” (Pat Armstrong, Kate Laxer and Hugh Armstrong) Introduction to the Health Module in the Gender and Work Database. www.genderwork.ca, 2004

“Reading Romanow. The Implications of the Final Report of The Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada for Women.” (Pat Armstrong, Madeline Boscoe, Barbara Clow, Karen Grant, Ann Pederson, Kay Willson and Olena Hankivsky, Beth Jackson and Marina Morrow). Winnipeg: Canadian Women’s Health Network, 2003

“Planning For Care.” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Paper commissioned by the Commission on the Future of Health Care (Romanow), 2002. www.healthcarecommission.ca

“Thinking It Through: Women, Work and Caring in the New Millennium” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Paper prepared for The Healthy Balance Research Programme, Maritime Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health, Halifax, October 2001

“100 Years of Caregiving.” (Pat Armstrong and Olga Kitts). Report prepared to the Law Commission of Canada, 2001

“Assessing the Impact of Restructuring and Work Reorganization in Long Term Care” (Pat Armstrong, Irene Jansen, Erin Connell and Mavis Jones). Toronto: National Network For Environments and Women’s Health, 2001

“Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value” (Pat Armstrong). Report prepared for the Public Service Alliance of Canada, in Canadian Postal Workers vs Canada Post. Ottawa: Canadian Human Rights Commission, January, 1993. Revised for the Canadian Human Rights Commission, Spring 1998 and 2000

“Women, Privatization and Health Care Reform: The Ontario Case” (Pat Armstrong and Hugh Armstrong). Toronto: National Network on Environments and Women’s Health, December 1999

“Managing Reform: Managing Care: Perspectives from B.C. Nurses” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Ivy Bourgeault, Jacqueline Choiniere, Eric Mykalovskiy and Jerry White). Ottawa: Carleton University, 1999

“Integrating the Social Sciences and Humanities in the CIHR.” (Working Group on the Canadian Institutes of Health Gender and Women’s Health Research: Lorraine Greaves and Penny Ballem, Principle Investigators) Research Report submitted to the SSHRC and the CIHR Foundation, Ottawa, October 1999. Karen Grant PI.

“The Consequences of Government Policy Changes in Long Term Care In Ontario. A Survey of Care Providers.” (Pat Armstrong, Laura Sky, Ellen Long, Hugh Armstrong, Jacqueline Choiniere, Eric Mykhalovskiy, Jerry White and Ivy Bourgeault). Toronto: CUPE and SEIU, 1997

“The Promise and The Price: New Work Organization in Health Care.” (Pat Armstrong, Hugh Armstrong, Jacqueline Choiniere, Eric Mykhalovskiy and Jerry White). Toronto: York University Centre for Health Studies, 1996

"Voices From the Ward: A Pilot Study of the Impact of Cutbacks on Hospital Care" (Pat Armstrong, Jackie Choiniere, Gina Feldberg and Jerry White). Toronto: York University Centre for Health Studies, February, 1994

“Closer to Home: More Work for Women” (Pat Armstrong). Report published by the British Columbia Hospital Employees Union, November 1993

Registration Project Report on Prior Learning Assessment (Pat Armstrong, Elizabeth Allemang, Hugh Armstrong and Freda Seddon). Prepared for the Transitional Council of the Ontario College of Midwives, June 1993

“Understanding the Numbers: Women in Television and Film” (Pat Armstrong). Report prepared for Toronto Women in Film and Television, January 1992.

“Families at Play.” (Pat Armstrong and Laura Johnson). Report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Tourism and Recreation, 1991

“Under 10's: Small Business and Pay Equity” (Pat Armstrong). Report prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Labour's Green Paper on Pay Equity, 1991

“Predominately Female Sectors: Health Care.” (Pat Armstrong with assistance from Jacqueline Choiniere, Chris Gabriel and Jan Kainer). Report prepared for the Ontario Pay Equity Commission, September, 1988

Forthcoming

Thinking Women: Health Care (Pat Armstrong, Barbara Clow, Karen Grant, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Beth Jackson, Ann Pederson and Morgan Seeley), Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, forthcoming 2011